Vocabulary

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Lesson Notes

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Echo: Welcome to cantoneseclass101.com. I am Echo.
Oscar: 大家好, 我係Oscar。(daai6 gaa1 hou2, ngo5 hai6 Oscar.)
Echo: And we are here today with lower intermediate, season 1, Lesson 23. A Troubled Chinese Past.
Oscar: 香港以前嘅居住環境。(hoeng1 gong2 ji5 cin4 ge3 geoi1 zyu6 waan4 ging2.)
Echo: Right. This is a lesson all about Hong Kong’s dark and rebellion. It is all about crime and the mob.
Oscar: 係呀! 我哋嘅對話呢 就發生喺兩個好朋友身上。(hai6 aa3! ngo5 dei6 ge3 deoi3 waa6 ne1 zau6 faat3 sang1 hai2 loeng5 go3 hou2 pang4 jau5 san1 soeng6.)
Echo: Yes. They are talking about how dangerous Hong Kong used to be and they are speaking casual Cantonese as always.
Oscar: 咁我哋而家去聽下佢哋點講啦! ( gam2 ngo5 dei6 ji4 gaa1 heoi3 teng1 haa5 keoi5 dei6 dim2 gong2 laa1!)
DIALOGUE
A: 旺角嘅治安曾經好差。(wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 on1 cang4 ging1 hou2 caa1.)
B: 點解咁講? (dim2 gaai2 gam2 gong2?)
A: 以前成日有黑社會開片。(ji5 cin4 seng4 jat6 jau5 hak1 se5 wui2 hoi1 pin2.)
B: 咁誇張?咁而家呢? (gam3 kwaa1 zoeng1? gam2 ji4 gaa1 ne1?)
A: 好咗好多,冇咩大事發生。(hou2 zo2 hou2 do1, mou5 me1 daai6 si6 faat3 sang1.)
B: 咁都好啲。(gam2 dou1 hou2 di1.)
David: One more time, a bit slower.
A: 旺角嘅治安曾經好差。(wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 on1 cang4 ging1 hou2 caa1.)
B: 點解咁講? (dim2 gaai2 gam2 gong2?)
A: 以前成日有黑社會開片。(ji5 cin4 seng4 jat6 jau5 hak1 se5 wui2 hoi1 pin2.)
B: 咁誇張?咁而家呢? (gam3 kwaa1 zoeng1? gam2 ji4 gaa1 ne1?)
A: 好咗好多,冇咩大事發生。(hou2 zo2 hou2 do1, mou5 me1 daai6 si6 faat3 sang1.)
B: 咁都好啲。(gam2 dou1 hou2 di1.)
David: And now with the English translation.
A: 旺角嘅治安曾經好差。(wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 on1 cang4 ging1 hou2 caa1.)
A: Mongkok didn't used to be a safe place.
B: 點解咁講? (dim2 gaai2 gam2 gong2?)
B: Why do you say so?
A: 以前成日有黑社會開片。(ji5 cin4 seng4 jat6 jau5 hak1 se5 wui2 hoi1 pin2.)
A: There used to be gun fights there a lot.
B: 咁誇張?咁而家呢? (gam3 kwaa1 zoeng1? gam2 ji4 gaa1 ne1?)
B: Really? what about now?
A: 好咗好多,冇咩大事發生。(hou2 zo2 hou2 do1, mou5 me1 daai6 si6 faat3 sang1.)
A: It's much better now. Nothing too serious has happened.
B: 咁都好啲。(gam2 dou1 hou2 di1.)
B: That's good.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Echo: So Oscar, where do you live in Hong Kong?
Oscar: 我住喺沙田囉。(ngo5 zyu6 hai2 saa1 tin4 lo1.)
Echo: How safe is that?
Oscar: 治安好好㗎, 香港嘅治安 一直都好好。(zi6 ngon1 hou2 hou2 gaa3, hoeng1 gong2 ge3 zi6 ngon1 jat1 zik6 dou1 hou2 hou2.)
Echo: Well, safe is boring. So I guess it is good thing we are talking about the past. Let’s look at our vocabulary.
VOCAB LIST
Oscar: 旺角。(wong6 gok3.)
Echo: Mong Kok
Oscar: 旺 角, 旺角, 治安。(wong6 gok3, wong6gok3, zi6 on1)
Echo: Public safety.
Oscar: 治 安, 治安, 曾經。(zi6 on1, zi6 on1, cang4 ging1)
Echo: Used to be.
Oscar: 曾 經, 曾經, 點解咁講。(cang4 ging1, cang4 ging1, dim2 gaai2 gam2 gong2)
Echo: Why do you say so.
Oscar: 點 解 咁 講, 點解咁講, 一度. (dim2 gaai2 gam2 gong2, dim2 gaai2 gam2 gong2, jat1 dou6 )
Echo: Once.
Oscar: 一 度, 一度, 黑社會. (jat1 dou6, jat1 dou6, hak1 se5 wui2)
Echo: The mob.
Oscar: 黑 社 會, 黑社會, 開片. (hak1 se5 wui2, hak1 se5 wui2, hoi1 pin2)
Echo: To fight.
Oscar: 開 片, 開片, 誇張。(hoi1 pin2, hoi1 pin2, kwaa1 zeong1)
Echo: To exaggerate.
Oscar: 誇 張, 誇張。(kwaa1 zeong1, kwaa1 zeong1)
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Echo: Let’s have a closer look at some of the words from this lesson. Our first word is
Oscar: 治安。(zi6 ngon1.)
Echo: Public safety.
Oscar: 治安。(zi6 ngon1.)
Echo: Public safety.
Oscar: 香港嘅治安係好好㗎, 平時街上面會有好多警察。(hoeng1 gong2 ge3 zi6 ngon1 hai6 hou2 hou2 gaa3, ping4 si4 gaai1 soeng6 min6 wui2 jau5 hou2 do1 ging2 caat3.)
Echo: Yeah if you haven’t been to Hong Kong, don’t let this lesson worry you. It is actually a very safe place.
Oscar: 係呀! 絕大部份嘅地方都相當安全嘅。(hai6 aa3! zyut6 daai6 bou6 fan6 ge3 dei6 fong1 dou1 soeng1 dong1 ngon1 cyun4 ge2.)
Echo: Yeah pretty much every place is safe except maybe some parts right near the border. So Oscar, tell us about these guns in Mong Kok though. Is that true?
Oscar: 唔, 你肯定係睇電影睇太多, 不過我哋而家先嚟睇下 下一個單詞先 - 黑社會. (m4, nei5 hang2 ding6 hai6 tai2 din6 jing2 tai2 taai3 do1, bat1 gwo3 ngo5 dei6 ji4 gaa1 sin1 lei4 tai2 haa5 haa6 jat1 go3 daan1 ci4 sin1 - hak1 se5 wui2.)
Echo: This is a word for gang.
Oscar: 黑社會。(hak1 se5 wui2.)
Echo: Gun or mob.
Oscar: 雖然旺角係香港人口最密集嘅地方, 不過唔會好亂。(seoi1 jin4 wong6 gok3 hai6 hoeng1 gong2 jan4 hau2 zeoi3 mat6 zaap6 ge3 dei6 fong1, bat1 gwo3 m4 wui2 hou2 lyun6.)
Echo: Right. Mong Kok – Mong Kok is most densely populated place in Hong Kong but it isn’t really very messy, it’s pretty safe.
Oscar: 電影裏面嘅 只不過係誇張手法, 現實生活裏面係根本唔會有㗎! (din6 jing2 leoi5 min6 ge3 zi2 bat1 gwo3 hai6 kwaa1 zoeng1 sau2 faat3, jin6 sat6 sang1 wut6 leoi5 min6 hai6 gan1 bun2 m4 wui2 jau5 gaa3!)
Echo: Right. Hong Kong movies usually exaggerate crime in the city.
Oscar: 誇張。(kwaa1 zoeng1.)
Echo: To exaggerate.
Oscar: 誇張。(kwaa1 zoeng1.)
Echo: To exaggerate.
Oscar: 係呀! 嗰度嘅犯罪真係冇咁嚴重㗎。(hai6 aa3! go2 dou6 ge3 faan6 zeoi6 zan1 hai6 mou5 gam3 jim4 cung4 gaa3.)
Echo: No. So we might say, movies exaggerate the amount of crime in Hong Kong.
Oscar: 電影誇張咗香港嘅犯罪情况。(din6 jing2 kwaa1 zoeng1 zo2 hoeng1 gong2 ge3 faan6 zeoi6 cing4 fong3.)
Echo: Movies exaggerate the amount of crime in Hong Kong.
Oscar: 電影誇張咗香港嘅犯罪情况。(din6 jing2 kwaa1 zoeng1 zo2 hoeng1 gong2 ge3 faan6 zeoi6 cing4 fong3.)
Echo: So if you are coming to Hong Kong, you don’t need to work.
Oscar: 係呀! 因為嗰度嘅治安真係好好㗎! (hai6 aa3! jan1 wai6 go2 dou6 ge3 zi6 ngon1 zan1 hai6 hou2 hou2 gaa3!)
Echo: And the mob that is left is usually doing things like selling DVDs these days. Not hurting people.
Oscar: 冇錯喇! (mou5 co3 laa3!)
Echo: So with that said, let’s move on to our grammar section.

Lesson focus

Oscar: It’s grammar time.
Echo: Today we are going to review ways to refer to the past.
Oscar: 冇錯喇! (mou5 co3 laa3!)
Echo: In our dialogue, we heard this.
Oscar: 旺角嘅治安 曾經 好差。(wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 ngon1 cang4 ging1 hou2 caa1.)
Echo: Mong Kok didn’t used to be a safe place.
Oscar: 旺角嘅治安 曾經 好差。(wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 ngon1 cang4 ging1 hou2 caa1.)
Echo: Listen to this word.
Oscar: 曾經。(cang4 ging1.)
Echo: Used to be
Oscar: 曾經。(cang4 ging1.)
Echo: We can also say
Oscar: 一度。(jat1 dou6.)
Echo: Once.
Oscar: 一度。(jat1 dou6.)
Echo: So you can either say
Oscar: 旺角嘅治安 曾經 好差。(wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 ngon1 cang4 ging1 hou2 caa1.)
Echo: Or
Oscar: 旺角嘅治安 一度 好差。(wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 ngon1 jat1 dou6 hou2 caa1.)
Echo: Let’s look at some more examples.
Oscar: 好呀! 咁我哋睇下 咿句吖! 我一度差啲入咗 黑社會. (hou2 aa3! gam2 ngo5 dei6 tai2 haa5 ji1 geoi3 aa1 ! ngo5 jat1 dou6 caa1 di1 jap6 zo2 hak1 se5 wui2.)
Echo: Once I almost joined the mob.
Oscar: 我一度差啲加入咗 黑社會。(ngo5 jat1 dou6 caa1 di1 gaa1 jap6 zo2 hak1 se5 wui2.)
Echo: How about he used to be unlucky in word.
Oscar: 佢曾經喺工作上面好唔順利. (keoi5 cang4 ging1 hai2 gung1 zok3 soeng6 min6 hou2 m4 seon6 lei6.)
Echo: So our first two ways to refer to the past are
Oscar: 曾經。(cang4 ging1.)
Echo: And
Oscar: 一度。(jat1 dou6.)
Echo: What about some more difficult ways.
Oscar: 我哋可以話 - 以前。(ngo5 dei6 ho2 ji5 waa6 - ji5 cin4.)
Echo: In the past.
Oscar: 以前。(ji5 cin4.)
Echo: In the past.
Oscar: 冇錯喇! 我哋睇一句例句, 我以前就經常去旺角行街。(mou5 co3 laa3! ngo5 dei6 tai2 jat1 geoi3 lai6 geoi3, ngo5 ji5 cin4 zau6 ging1 soeng4 heoi3 wong6 gok3 haang4 gaai1.)
Echo: I used to go shopping in Mong Kok all the time.
Oscar: 我以前就經常去旺角行街。(ngo5 ji5 cin4 zau6 ging1 soeng4 heoi3 wong6 gok3 haang4 gaai1.)
Echo: In the past, I often went to Mong Kok to go shopping.
Oscar: 「以前」係比較口語化嘅, 而正式一啲嘅就係「從前」。(“ji5 cin4” hai6 bei2 gaau3 hau2 jyu5 faa3 ge3, ji4 zing3 sik1 jat1 di1 ge3 zau6 hai6 “cung4 cin4”.)
Echo: Right. This is more formal.
Oscar: 從前。(cung4 cin4.)
Echo: So we see this in written Cantonese more than spoken Cantonese.
Oscar: 冇錯喇! 從前。(mou5 co3 laa3! cung4 cin4.)
Echo: In the past.
Oscar: 從前。(cung4 cin4.)
Echo: In the past.
Oscar: 從前香港就只不過係一個好細嘅漁港。(cung4 cin4 hoeng1 gong2 zau6 zi2 bat1 gwo3 hai6 jat1 go3 hou2 sai3 ge3 jyu4 gong2.)
Echo: In the past, Hong Kong was only a small fishing port.
Oscar: 從前香港就只不過係一個好細嘅漁港。(cung4 cin4 hoeng1 gong2 zau6 zi2 bat1 gwo3 hai6 jat1 go3 hou2 sai3 ge3 jyu4 gong2.)
Echo: In the past, Hong Kong was only a small fishing port.
Oscar: 或者係, 從前旺角嘅治安唔算太好。(waak6 ze2 hai6, cung4 cin4 wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 ngon1 m4 syun3 taai3 hou2.)
Echo: In the past, Mong Kok didn’t used to be very safe.
Oscar: 從前旺角嘅治安唔算太好。(cung4 cin4 wong6 gok3 ge3 zi6 ngon1 m4 syun3 taai3 hou2.)
Echo: So let’s review these words.
Oscar: 一度, 曾經, 以前, 從前。(jat1 dou6, cang4 ging1, ji5 cin4, cung4 cin4.)
Echo: We are done with our lesson for today.
Oscar: 冇錯。(mou5 co3.)

Outro

Echo: And we are looking forward to seeing you on the site.
Oscar: 咁我哋網上見啦! (gam2 ngo5 dei6 mong5 soeng6 gin3 laa1!)
Echo: Thanks for listening. Bye bye.
Oscar: 下次見。(haa6 ci3 gin3.)

Grammar

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17 Comments

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CantoneseClass101.com
Tuesday at 6:30 pm
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Have you ever visited Mongkok? How was your experience?!

CantoneseClass101.comVerified
Friday at 6:18 pm
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Hello Vincent,


香港以前嘅居住環境.

hoeng1 gong2 ji5 cin4 ge3 geoi1 zyu6 waan4 ging2.

居住(geoi1 zyu6) ~ to live, to reside

居 geoi1 - live, reside

住 zyu6 - live, dwell

環境 (waan4 ging2) ~ surroundings, environment

環 waan4 - ring, surround

境 ging2 - boundary, circumstance


以(ji5) ~ by means of

從(cung4) ~ follow, from

You are right that 前(cin4) means "before". 👍


係呀! 絕大部份嘅地方都相當安全嘅.

hai6 aa3! zyut6 daai6 bou6 fan6 ge3 dei6 fong1 dou1 soeng1 dong1 ngon1 cyun4 ge2.

絕(zyut6) is the abbreviation or derives from the word 絕對(zyut6 deoi3) ~ absolutely, absolute

相當 (soeng1 dong1) ~ considerably, fairly, pretty much

相 soeng1 - mutually, with each other

當 dong1 - appropriate, proper


(I'm guessing that "daai6 bou6 fan6 ge3 dei6 fong1 dou1 大部份嘅地方都 ... ngon1 cyun4 ge2." 安全嘅 means something like "most places are ... safe[ty]?) You are absolutely correct again. Fantastic Translation!! 👍👍👍



Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com








Vincent
Wednesday at 8:52 am
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In the transcript's Introduction, Oscar says: "hoeng1 gong2 ji5 cin4 ge3 geoi1 zyu6 waan4 ging2." 香港以前嘅居住環境 What is the individual meaning of "geoi1"居 and its meaning with "zyu6"住, and what is the meaning of "waan4"環 and "ging2"境? Also, while I understand that "ji5 cin4" 以前 and "cung4 cin4"從前 both mean "in the past," what is the literal translation of "ji5"以 and "cung4"從 separately (as there is no Honzi for these words/characters nor do they appear individually in the on-line dictionary), and together with "cin4"前, which I'm guessing means something like "before" (but want to confirm with you if that's correct)?


In the transcript's Vocabulary and Phrase Usage, Oscar says in his fourth sentence "hai6 aa3! zyut6 daai6 bou6 fan6 ge3 dei6 fong1 dou1 soeng1 dong1 ngon1 cyun4 ge2." 係呀! 絕大部份嘅地方都相當安全嘅 What does "zyut6"絕, "soeng1"相 and "dong1"當 mean individually, and together if they form a word together? (I'm guessing that "daai6 bou6 fan6 ge3 dei6 fong1 dou1 大部份嘅地方都 ... ngon1 cyun4 ge2." 安全嘅 means something like "most places are ... safe[ty]?) Thank you, again, for your very helpful explanations!

Rui
Saturday at 2:06 am
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(reposting) Echo says 黑社會 means "gun" or "mob". So can 黑社會 refer to a gun (the weapon), or did she mean "gang"? What would be the most commonly used word in Cantonese for a gun?

Rui
Sunday at 2:15 am
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Echo says 黑社會 means "gun" or "mob". So can 黑社會 refer to a gun (the weapon), or did she mean "gang"? What would be the most commonly used word in Cantonese for a gun?

Cantoneseclass@101.com
Sunday at 4:30 pm
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Hello Vincent,


尋日學校裏面有人開片,搞到有人受傷。

cam4 jat6 hok6 haau6 leoi5 min6 jau5 jan4 hoi1 pin2, gaau2 dou3 jau5 jan4 sau6 seong1.

Yesterday there was a fight in the schoolyard, somebody was hurt.

搞到( gaau2 dou3)~ cause

搞(gaau2)~ stir up

到(dou3)~ reach, arrive


You are right that 裏面(leoi5 min6) means "inside". There is no word in the sentence that literally translates as the “yard” in “schoolyard" ? ?


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Vincent
Monday at 12:34 am
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In the vocabulary sentence for "to fight," what does "gaau2 dou3" mean? ("cam4 jat6 hok6 haau6 leoi5 min6 jau5 jan4 hoi1 pin2, gaau2 dou3 jau5 jan4 sau6 seong1." Yesterday there was a fight in the schoolyard, somebody was hurt.) Also, does "leoi5 min6" mean "inside" the school; in other words, there is no word in the sentence that literally translates as the "yard" in "schoolyard?" Thank you, again. for your assistance!

Cantoneseclass@101.com
Sunday at 5:29 am
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Hello Vincent,


我一度差啲加入咗黑社會。

ngo5 jat1 dou6 caa1 di1 gaa1 jap6 zo2 hak1 se5 wui2

"Once, I almost joined the mob."

差啲caa1 di1~almost

加入gaa1 jap6~join, add


佢曾經工作上面好唔順利。

keoi5 cang4 ging1 gung1 zok3 soeng6 min6 hou2 m4 seon6 lei6

"He's been unlikely in work in the past."

上面soeng6 min6~ on the top, the aspect, situation

喺......上面, (hai2 .......soeng6 min6) OR 喺......上(hai2 .......soeng6 )~ according to....... this aspect.

順利seon6 lei6~ describe the thing going smooth and without any difficulty


從前香港只不過係一個好細嘅漁港。

cung4 cin4 hoeng1 gong2 zi2 bat1 gwo3 hai6 jat1 go3 hou2 sai3 ge3 jyu4 gong2

"In the past, Hong Kong was only a small fishing port."

只不過zi2 bat1 gwo3~ It is just a...., It is only a....


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Cantoneseclass@101.com
Sunday at 5:11 am
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Hello Vincent,


咁誇張?(gam3 kwaa1 zoeng1?) ~ Are you serious?

咁(gam3)~ in such a , so

誇張(kwaa1 zoeng1)~exaggerated


旺角係香港人口最密集嘅地方。

wong6 gok3 hai6 heong1 gong2 jan4 hau2 zoi3 mat6 zaap6 ge3 dei6 fong1.

Mong Kok is one of the most densely populated places in HK.

人口最密集(jan4 hau2 zoi3 mat6 zaap6)~the most densely populated

人口(jan4 hau2)~population

最(zoi3)~ the most

密集(mat6 zaap6)~ densely, crowded, compressed


呢一帶曾經係好繁華嘅地段,不過而家已經荒廢晒。

ni1 jat1 daai3 cang4 ging1 hai6 hou2 faan4 waa4 ge3 dei6 dyun6, bat1 gwo3 ji4 gaa1 ji5 ging1 fong1 fai3 saai3.

This used to be a bustling place, but it is empty now.

“jat1 daai3″ and “faan4 waa4″ and “fong1 fai3 saai3.”

一帶(jat1 daai3)~the area, vicinity, the area near or surrounding a particular place

繁華(faan4 waa4)~flourishing, bustling

荒廢(fong1 fai3)~desolate, empty

晒(saai3)~ completely


講法(gong2 faat3)~ the opinion, the way you speak

講(gong2)~speak, talk

法(faat3)~way, method


差人對嗰班黑社會採取咗懲罰性措施。

caai1 jan4 deoi3 go2 baan1 hak1 se5 wui2 coi2 ceoi2 zo2 cing4 fat6 sing3 cou3 si1.

The police took punitive measures against the mob.

差人caai1 jan4~police

對deoi3~towards, treat

嗰班 go2 baan1 ~those group of

黑社會hak1 se5 wui2~the triads, gangsters

採取咗coi2 ceoi2 zo2~ have taken

懲罰 cing4 fat6 ~punish

性sing3~nature, quality

措施 cou3 si1~ measure, step


邊有......bin1 jau5......~ How could that be....! Where is the good thing you mentioned?? I just can`t see it!!

邊bin1~ Where

有jau5~have, contain


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Vincent
Sunday at 8:38 am
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What is the literal translation and meaning of each character/word in "caa1 di1 gaa1 jap6" in the Lesson Notes grammar sentence, "ngo5 jat1 dou6 caa1 di1 gaa1 jap6 zo2 hak1 se5 wui2." (Once, I almost joined the mob.)


What is the literal translation and meaning of "soeng6 min6" in the Lesson Notes grammar sentence, "keoi5 cang4 ging1 gung1 zok3 soeng6 min6 hou2 m4 seon6 lei6."(He's been unlikely [unlucky?] in work in the past.) (I thought it ordinarily means "on top of.)


What is the literal translation and meaning of each character/word in "zi2 bat1 gwo3" in the Lesson Notes grammar sentence, "cung4 cin4 hoeng1 gong2 zi2 bat1 gwo3 hai6 jat1 go3 hou2 sai3 ge3 jyu4 gong2." (In the past, Hong Kong was only a small fishing port.)


Thank you, again!

Vincent
Sunday at 1:10 am
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In the dialogue, can you explain how "gam3 kwaa1 zoeng1?" means "Really?" and what the literal translation and meaning is for each word in "[mou5 me1] daai6 si6 faat3 sang1" .


In the vocabulary sentence for Mong kok: wong6 gok3 hai6 heong1 gong2 jan4 hau2 zoi3 mat6 zaap6 ge3 dei6 fong1 (Mong Kok is one of the most densely populated places in HK), what is the literal translation and meaning of each word in "jan4 hau2 zoi3 mat6 zaap6."


In the vocabulary sentence for "use to be": ni1 jat1 daai3 cang4 ging1 hai6 hou2 faan4 waa4 ge3 dei6 dyun6, bat1 gwo3 ji4 gaa1 ji5 ging1 fong1 fai3 saai3 (This used to be a bustling place, but it is empty now), what is the literal translation and meaning for each word in "jat1 daai3" and "faan4 waa4" and "fong1 fai3 saai3."


What does "faat3" mean in the vocabulary sentence (for Why do you say so ),"ngo5 m4 hai6 hou2 tung4 ji3 nei5 ge3 gong2 faat3 wo3 (I don’t agree with you.)?


What is the literal translation for each word/character in "caai1 jan4 deoi3 go2 baan1 hak1 se5 wui2 coi2 ceoi2 zo2 cing4 fat6 sing3 cou3 si1 (The police took punitive measures against the mob)?


In the vocabulary sentence for "to fight," what is the translation and meaning of "leoi5 min6" [after hok6 haau6]?


In the vocabulary sentence for "to exaggerate," what does "bin1 jau5" mean in front of "gam3 hou2 aa3?"


Thank you, again, as I look forward to all your very clear and helpful explanations!