Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
David: Welcome to CantoneseClass101.com. I’m David.
Gimmy: 大家好, 我係 Gimmy。(daai6 gaa1 hou2, ngo5 hai6 Gimmy.)
David: And we’re here today with Beginner Season 1, Lesson 18.
Gimmy: Can’t You See I’m Busy?
David: Right. We’ve got a dialogue that takes place at the office dealing with someone who is under a lot of stress because they’re in the middle of something. Can’t you see it?
Gimmy: Yeah. But then, someone’s asking him to get off, to leave.
David: Yeah. So our dialogue consist of standard Cantonese the way it’s actually spoken in Hong Kong. Let’s go listen.

Lesson conversation

你做緊咩?(nei5 zou6 gan2 me1?)
而家開緊會。(ji4 gaa1 hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
等緊你放工呀。(dang2 gan2 nei5 fong3 gung1 aa3.)
等多陣啦。(dang2 do1 zan6 laa1.)
David: One more time, a bit slower.
你做緊咩?(nei5 zou6 gan2 me1?)
而家開緊會。(ji4 gaa1 hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
等緊你放工呀。(dang2 gan2 nei5 fong3 gung1 aa3.)
等多陣啦。(dang2 do1 zan6 laa1.)
David: And now, with the English translation.
你做緊咩?(nei5 zou6 gan2 me1?)
David: What are you doing?
而家開緊會。(ji4 gaa1 hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
David: I'm having a meeting now.
等緊你放工呀。(dang2 gan2 nei5 fong3 gung1 aa3.)
David: I'm waiting for you to get off work.
等多陣啦。(dang2 do1 zan6 laa1.)
David: Just wait for a little while.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
David: I have bad news for the first speaker. In Hong Kong, it’s normal for the work day to go until 8:00 PM.
Gimmy: At least.
David: Sometimes, 9 or 10 (PM).
Gimmy: Yes.
David: So maybe you’ll be waiting a bit more a little bit. Anyway, our vocab today, it’s about office activities.
Gimmy: Right.
David: Holding a meeting, going to work, getting of work.
Gimmy: Right.
David: Let’s get to it.
VOCAB LIST
Gimmy: 做咩 (zou6 me1) [natural native speed]
David: To do what.
Gimmy: 做咩 (zou6 me1) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 做咩 (zou6 me1) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 而家 (ji4 gaa1) [natural native speed].
David: Now.
Gimmy: 而家 (ji4 gaa1) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 而家 (ji4 gaa1) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 開會 (hoi1 wui2) [natural native speed]
David: To hold a meeting.
Gimmy: 開會 (hoi1 wui2) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 開會 (hoi1 wui2) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 散會 (saan6 wui2) [natural native speed]
David: To end a meeting.
Gimmy: 散會 (saan6 wui2) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 散會 (saan6 wui2) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 返工 (faan1 gung1) [natural native speed]
David: To go to work.
Gimmy: 返工 (faan1 gung1) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 返工 (faan1 gung1) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 放工 (fong3 gung1) [natural native speed]
David: To get off work.
Gimmy: 放工 (fong3 gung1) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 放工 (fong3 gung1) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 等陣 (dang2 zan6) [natural native speed].
David: To wait a while.
Gimmy: 等陣 (dang2 zan6) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 等陣 (dang2 zan6) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 請假 (ceng2 gaa3) [natural native speed].
David: To take time off.
Gimmy: 請假 (ceng2 gaa3) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 請假 (ceng2 gaa3) [natural native speed].
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
David: Let’s take a closer look at some of these words and phrases. Our verbs today are verbs related to office activities.
Gimmy: Yes.
David: But first, before you can start then, you need to get to the office.
Gimmy: 返工. (faan1 gung1.)
David: “To go to work.”
Gimmy: 返工. (faan1 gung1.)
David: Now, this sounds a lot like another word.
Gimmy: 放工. (fong3 gung1.)
David: “To get off work.”
Gimmy: 放工. (fong3 gung1.)
David: “To get off work. “
Gimmy: 放工. (fong3 gung1.)
David: And they sound really, really close. So let’s hear them again right beside each other.
Gimmy: 返工 (faan1 gung1), 放工 (fong3 gung1).
David: So the second character there is “work”.
Gimmy: Yes, it’s the same. 工 (gung1)
David: But the first character is slightly different.
Gimmy: Right, 返. 放. 返. 放. (faan1. fong3. faan1. fong3.)
David: Practically speaking, they’re close enough that when your boss calls you and tells you to get to work, you can tell them “I thought you were giving me the day off?”
Gimmy: Really?
David: And we have that word in our dialogue, too.
Gimmy: 請假. (ceng2 gaa3.)
David: “To ask for time off.”
Gimmy: 請假. (ceng2 gaa3.)
David: “Boss, I need to ask for time off.”
Gimmy: 老細,我想請假. (lou5 sai3, ngo5 soeng2 ceng2 gaa3.)
David: Or, “Boss, I want to ask for time off.”
Gimmy: 老細,我想放假. (lou5 sai3, ngo5 soeng2 fong3 gaa2.)
David: “Boss, I want to ask for time off.
Gimmy: 老細,我想放假. (lou5 sai3, ngo5 soeng2 fong3 gaa2.)
David: Or maybe it’s more present. “Boss, I need to ask for time off.”
Gimmy: 老細,我要請假. (lou5 sai3, ngo5 jiu3 ceng2 gaa3.)
David: “Boss, I need to ask for time off.”
Gimmy: 老細,我要請假. (lou5 sai3, ngo5 jiu3 ceng2 gaa3.)
David: And hopefully, the answer will be “yes” but it might be “no, we’re having a meeting.”
Gimmy: 唔得,我哋開緊會. (m4 dak1, ngo5 dei6 hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
David: Which is, “No, we need to have a meeting.”
Gimmy: 唔得,我哋要開會. (m4 dak1, ngo5 dei6 jiu3 hoi1 wui2.)
David: Let’s take a look at that verb, “to have a meeting.”
Gimmy: 開會. (hoi1 wui2.)
David: The first sound means “to start”.
Gimmy: 開. (hoi1.)
David: And the second word is “meeting.”
Gimmy: 會. (wui2.)
David: “To start a meeting.”
Gimmy: 開會. (hoi1 wui2.)
David: But if the meeting is ongoing, you’d still say, “We’re starting a meeting.”
Gimmy: Right. Like in our dialogue, “We’re having a meeting now.” 而家開緊會. (ji4 gaa1 hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
David: “Now starting a meeting/now holding a meeting.”
Gimmy: 而家開緊會. (ji4 gaa1 hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
David: So a lot of office-related verbs. We have “to go to work.”
Gimmy: 返工. (faan1 gung1.)
David: “To get off work.”
Gimmy: 放工. (fong3 gung1.)
David: “To take time off.”
Gimmy: 請假. (ceng2 gaa3.)
David: And “to hold a meeting.”
Gimmy: 開會. (hoi1 wui2.)
David: In our grammar section, we’re going to talk about how we can do these things continuously.
Gimmy: Right.
David: It’s grammar time!

Lesson focus

David: Gimmy, what’s our grammar focus today?
Gimmy: Today, we’re teaching the continuous aspect.
David: Right. This is a way of expressing that the verb you’re using is still happening.
Gimmy: Yes, it’s ongoing.
David: Right. For an example from our dialogue, take a look at that second line.
Gimmy: 而家開緊會. (ji4 gaa1 hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
David: “Now we’re holding a meeting.”
Gimmy: 而家開緊會. (Ji4 gaa1 hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
David: Or take a look at the third line, “I’m waiting.”
Gimmy: 我等緊你放工. (ngo5 dang2 gan2 nei5 fong3 gung1.)
David: “I’m waiting for you to get off work.”
Gimmy: 我等緊你放工. (ngo5 dang2 gan2 nei5 fong3 gung1.)
David: So we have a new particle here. That particle is…
Gimmy: 緊. (gan2.)
David: And we’re putting this particle after our verb.
Gimmy: For example, our first line, 做緊. (zou6 gan2.)
David: “Doing.”
Gimmy: Second line, 開緊. (hoi1 gan2.)
David: “Starting” or “holding”.
Gimmy: The third one, 等緊. (dang2 gan2.)
David: “Waiting”. In terms of usage, this is just like putting these verbs into the past tense. We’ve just changed the particle from…
Gimmy: 咗. (zo2.)
David: to…
Gimmy: 緊. (gan2.)
David: Once more, “I am doing.”
Gimmy: 我做緊. (ngo5 zou6 gan2.)
David: “I am holding (a meeting)”.
Gimmy: 我開緊. (ngo5 hoi1 gan2.)
David: “I am waiting”.
Gimmy: 我等緊. (ngo5 dang2 gan2.)
David: And as with putting verbs in the past tense, we have to be a bit careful with multi character verbs.
Gimmy: Right.
David: Especially to verb-object-verbs like “to hold a meeting”.
Gimmy: 開會. (hoi1 wui2.)
David: In these cases, we split the verb in the object and we put our particle in the middle.
Gimmy: 開緊會. (hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
David: “To be holding a meeting.”
Gimmy: 開緊會. (hoi1 gan2 wui2.)
David: How about “to be eating food”?
Gimmy: 食緊飯. (sik6 gan2 faan6.)
David: “To be watching a movie.”
Gimmy: 睇緊戲. (tai2 gan2 hei3.)
David: “To be on the phone.”
Gimmy: 講緊電話. (gong2 gan2 din6 waa2.)
David: “I’m watching a movie.”
Gimmy:我睇緊戲. (ngo5 tai2 gan2 hei3.)
David: “I’m on the phone.”
Gimmy: 我講緊電話. (ngo5 gong2 gan2 din6 waa2.)
David: “I’m going to work.”
Gimmy: 我返緊工. (ngo5 faan1 gan2 gung1.)
David: So that’s our grammar point for today. It’s new but it’s relatively easy.
Gimmy: Yes. Practice a bit. You’ll be able to use it in no time.

Outro

David: Right. So that’s all the time we have for today. Thanks for listening and we’ll see you on the site.
Gimmy: 希望下次見. (hei1 mong6 haa6 ci3 gin3.)

Grammar

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12 Comments

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CantoneseClass101.com
Monday at 6:30 pm
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How long do you work daily?

CantoneseClass101.com
Friday at 5:06 pm
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Hi Stephen,


Thanks for your question. 😉

Yes, 放假 (fong3 gaa3) and 請假 (ceng2 gaa3) are interchangeable, both mean "to take time-off".

In the dialogue, you can find that the English explanations are slightly different.

1) 我想放假 (ngo5 soeng2 fong3 gaa3) ~ I WANT to ask for time off < - to tell your request

2) 我要請假 (ngo5 jiu3 ceng2 gaa3) ~ I NEED to ask for time off <- to express you request strongly

Therefore, the difference arises from the verb, while you can exchange 放假 (fong3 gaa3) and 請假 (ceng2 gaa3) in these two sentences:

1) 我想請假 (ngo5 soeng2 ceng2 gaa3)

2) 我要放假 (ngo5 jiu3 fong3 gaa3)


Please let us know if you have any questions. 😉


Ada

Team CantoneseClass101.com

STEPHEN P MILSTREY
Thursday at 3:00 pm
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Hi,

Toward the end of the "closer look at these words and phrases" section, D&G are explaining 請假:

David: “To ask for time off.”

Gimmy: 請假. (ceng2 gaa3.)


But then Gimmy switches to "放假:"


David: Or, “Boss, I want to ask for time off.”

Gimmy: 老細,我想放假. (lou5 sai3, ngo5 soeng2 fong3 gaa2.)

David: “Boss, I want to ask for time off.

Gimmy: 老細,我想放假. (lou5 sai3, ngo5 soeng2 fong3 gaa2.)


As a student, I find this very confusing as there is no mention of "放假" anywhere. David says "...time off " six times, but Gimmy says 請假 four times and 放假 two times, as if they are interchangable. This makes it very hard to learn!


Can you please explain this?

Thanks,

Stephen

CantoneseClass101.comVerified
Sunday at 12:18 pm
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Hello Tom


瞓緊(fan3 gan2)~ is sleeping, (aspect marker for ongoing action, in the process of).

瞓着 (fan3 zoek6)~ fall asleep. (indicating the continuation of an action or a state)


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Tom
Saturday at 7:18 am
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Any guidance on when the continuing aspect particle 緊(gan2) is favored versus the continuing aspect particle 著(zyu3)?

Cantoneseclass101.comVerified
Monday at 7:20 am
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Hi Steven,


我寫緊嘢畀我老闆 means "I am writing something to my boss."


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Cantoneseclass101.comVerified
Monday at 12:33 am
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Hello daniel,


Thank you for your question.


I think both 放工 and 收工 are commonly used.


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

daniel
Tuesday at 1:21 pm
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another word for 放工 is 收工 which is also commonly used.

CantoneseClass101
Friday at 1:46 pm
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Hi Ciana,


Sorry for the inconvenience, that's because the page refreshes once you click on "Submit Comment".

Alternatively, you can click on the "Popout Player" icon at upper right corner of the audio player, that will allow the audio to play on another window. :wink:


Olivia

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Ciana
Friday at 8:25 am
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When I post a comment, it restarts the whole audio session.... Is their a way to fix this? Thanks:sweat_smile::smile:

CantoneseClass101
Monday at 6:29 pm
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Hi Stephen,


That's a very interesting question!

since 喺度 can refer to both "here" and "at the moment", we use 緊 after the verb to show the ongoing action.


For example:

喺度食緊飯 (currently) eating, in which 喺度 refers to the timeframe

喺度食飯 eat here, in which 喺度 refers to the location


Please let us know if you have any more questions.:grin:


Cheers,

Olivia

Team CantoneseClass101.com