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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
David: Welcome to CantoneseClass101.com. I am David.
Melody: 大家好,我係Melody。(daai6 gaa1 hou2, ngo5 hai6 Melody.)
David: And we are here today with an upper beginner lesson, season 1, Lesson 3. Skipping Class in Hong Kong.
Melody: 應該係兩個同學喺度傾緊計。(jing3 goi1 hai6 loeng5 go3 tung4 hok6 hai2 dou6 king1 gan2 gai3.)
David: Right. So we have two students in our dialogue, one is good, one is a bad student.
Melody: 冇錯,其中一個冇去上堂。(mou5 co3, kei4 zung1 jat1 go3 mou5 heoi3 soeng5 tong4.)
David: Right he is not attending class. We are going to find out why in this lesson which is casual Cantonese as always. Let’s get to the dialogue.
DIALOGUE
A:老師今日有冇點名? (lou5 si1 gam1 jat6 jau5 mou5 dim2 meng2?)
B:冇,點解你唔嚟上堂? (mou5, dim2 gaai2 nei5 m4 lei4 soeng5 tong4? )
A:好彩, 我尋晚飲大咗。 (hou2 coi2. ngo5 cam4 maan5 jam2 daai6 zo2. )
B:但係老師知道你冇嚟上堂。 (daan6 hai6 lou5 si1 zi1 dou3 nei5 mou5 lei4 soeng5 tong4. )
A:啊?佢點知㗎? (aa2 ? keoi5 dim2 zi1 gaa3?)
B:我講嘅。(ngo5 gong2 ge3.)
David: Once more, a bit more slowly.
A:老師今日有冇點名? (lou5 si1 gam1 jat6 jau5 mou5 dim2 meng2?)
B:冇,點解你唔嚟上堂? (mou5, dim2 gaai2 nei5 m4 lei4 soeng5 tong4? )
A:好彩, 我尋晚飲大咗。(hou2 coi2. ngo5 cam4 maan5 jam2 daai6 zo2. )
B:但係老師知道你冇嚟上堂。 (daan6 hai6 lou5 si1 zi1 dou3 nei5 mou5 lei4 soeng5 tong4. )
A:啊?佢點知㗎? (aa2 ? keoi5 dim2 zi1 gaa3?)
B:我講嘅。(ngo5 gong2 ge3.)
David: And now, with the English translation.
A:老師今日有冇點名? (lou5 si1 gam1 jat6 jau5 mou5 dim2 meng2?)
A: Did the teacher call the roll today?
B:冇,點解你唔嚟上堂?(mou5, dim2 gaai2 nei5 m4 lei4 soeng5 tong4? )
B: No. Why didn't you come to the class?
A:好彩, 我尋晚飲大咗。 (hou2 coi2. ngo5 cam4 maan5 jam2 daai6 zo2. )
A: Lucky me. I was out drinking last night.
B:但係老師知道你冇嚟上堂。(daan6 hai6 lou5 si1 zi1 dou3 nei5 mou5 lei4 soeng5 tong4. )
B: But the teacher knows you didn't come.
A:啊?佢點知㗎?(aa2 ? keoi5 dim2 zi1 gaa3?)
A: What? How did she know?
B:我講嘅。(ngo5 gong2 ge3.)
B: I told her.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Melody: 如果我有啲咁嘅朋友呢,我一定激死。(jyu4 gwo2 ngo5 jau5 di1 gam3 ge3 pang4 jau5 ne1, ngo5 jat1 ding6 gik1 sei2.)
David: Right you’d say. It’s a classmate but not a friend in this situation.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3.)
David: So our vocab today, it’s school related vocab but we also have a bit in here about going out for drinks in the evening.
Melody: 係呀。(hai6 aa3.)
David: So let’s get to the vocab section.
Melody: 一齊嚟聽下。(jat1 cai4 lei4 teng1 haa5.)
VOCAB LIST
Melody: 點名 (dim2 meng2)
David: To call the roll.
Melody: 點名 (dim2 meng2) [slow] 點名 (dim2 meng2) [normal speed]。老師 (lou5 si1)
David: Teacher.
Melody: 老師 (lou5 si1) [slow] 老師 (lou5 si1) [normal speed]。校長 (haau6 zoeng2)
David: Principal.
Melody: 校長 (haau6 zoeng2) [slow] 校長 (haau6 zoeng2) [normal speed]。教務(gaau3mou6 zyu2jam6)
David: Administrative director at a school.
Melody: 教務主任 ((gaau3mou6 zyu2jam6)) [slow] 教務主任 ((gaau3mou6 zyu2jam6)) [normal speed]。飲大咗 (jam2 daai6 zo2)
David: To have drunk a lot.
Melody: 飲大咗 (jam2 daai6 zo2) [slow] 飲大咗 (jam2 daai6 zo2) [normal speed]。宿醉 (suk1 zeoi3)
David: To have a hangover.
Melody: 宿醉 (suk1 zeoi3) [slow] 宿醉 (suk1 zeoi3) [normal speed]。上堂 (soeng5 tong4)
David: To have class.
Melody: 上堂 (soeng5 tong4) [slow] 上堂 (soeng5 tong4) [normal speed]。缺席 (kyut3 zik6)
David: To be absent.
Melody: 缺席 (kyut3 zik6) [slow] 缺席 (kyut3 zik6) [normal speed]。遲到 (ci4 dou3)
David: To be late.
Melody: 遲到 (ci4 dou3) [slow] 遲到 (ci4 dou3) [normal speed]。
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
David: Let’s take a closer look at some of these words and phrases. Our first word is
Melody: 點名 (dim2 meng2)
David: To call the roll
Melody: 點名 (dim2 meng2)
David: As in the sentence, the teacher calls the roll every day.
Melody: 老師每日都會點名。 (lou5 si1 mui5 jat6 dou1 wui5 dim2 meng2.)
David: The teacher calls roll every day.
Melody: 老師每日都會點名。(lou5 si1 mui5 jat6 dou1 wui5 dim2 meng2.)
David: And people will do this in Hong Kong even at the university level.
Melody: 可能睇唔同嘅老師。(ho2 nang4 tai2 m4 tung4 ge3 lou5 si1.)
David: Yeah it depends on the teacher but it’s not uncommon.
Melody: 係呀。(hai6 aa3.)
David: In the west, it is extremely uncommon for universities to just to have to call roll; but moving up from the teacher, the next level of administrator is the school principal.
Melody: 校長 (haau6 zoeng5)
David: Principal.
Melody: 校長 (haau6 zoeng5)
David: Now in Hong Kong, there is another level that’s sort of close to the principal who deals with problems with students like skip the classes or bad grades.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3.)
David: And this is a special position.
Melody: 教務主任 (gaau3 mou6 zyu2 jam6)
David: We translated this as an administrative director.
Melody: 教務主任 (gaau3 mou6 zyu2 jam6)
David: Right because they are the ones who will get in touch with parents.
Melody: 多數學生會驚教務主任多啲。(do1 sou3 hok6 sang1 wui5 geng1 gaau3 mou6 zyu2 jam6 do1 di1.)
David: So to think. So moving on, we’ve got a word here for going out and drinking a lot.
Melody: 飲大咗。(jam2 daai6 zo2.)
David: To drink a lot.
Melody: 飲大咗。(jam2 daai6 zo2.)
David: This is what the student in our dialogue did and notice that it’s in the past aspect.
Melody: 飲大咗。(jam2 daai6 zo2.)
David: You can only use this in the past aspect.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3.)
David: So you could say for instance, I was out last night and I drank a lot.
Melody: 尋晚我飲大咗。(cam4 maan5 ngo5 jam2 daai6 zo2.)
David: I was out last night and I drank a lot.
Melody: 尋晚我出去飲大咗。(cam4 maan5 ngo5 ceot1 heoi3 jam2 daai6 zo2.)
David: Right. Or if you see someone who looks drunk, you can use this verb as well. It looks like he must be drunk.
Melody: 佢一定係飲大咗。(keoi5 jat1 ding6 hai6 jam2 daai6 zo2.)
David: It looks like she must be drunk.
Melody: 佢一定係飲大咗。(keoi5 jat1 ding6 hai6 jam2 daai6 zo2.)
David: And of course if someone is drunk, there is a strong chance that they will get a hangover.
Melody: 宿醉 (suk1 zeoi3)
David: Hangover.
Melody: 宿醉 (suk1 zeoi3)
David: Which means a headache feeling, nausea. So moving on, there is one more really important verb here which is the verb to be absent.
Melody: 缺席 (kyut3 zik6)
David: To be absent.
Melody: 缺席 (kyut3 zik6 )
David: We will use this with schools or with meetings.
Melody: 冇錯,如果冇出現嘅話,就叫做「缺席」。(mou5 co3, jyu4 gwo2 mou5 ceot1 jin6 ge3 waa2, zau6 giu3 zou6 「 kyut3 zik6 」.)
David: Right. Melody, can you give us the sentence?
Melody: 譬如話:佢尋晚宿醉,所以今日缺席。(pei3 jyu4 waa6: keoi5 cam4 maan5 suk1 zeoi3, so2 ji3 gam1 jat6 kyut3 zik6.)
David: He was drunk last night and missed class today.
Melody: 佢尋晚宿醉,所以今日缺席。(keoi5 cam4 maan5 suk1 zeoi3, so2 ji3 gam1 jat6 kyut3 zik6.)
David: Or she was drinking heavily last night and missed class today. And with that, that’s our vocab for this lesson. Let’s move on to our grammar point which is about a release for word we can use to ask short questions.
Melody: 一齊嚟聽下。(jat1 cai4 lei4 teng1 haa5.)

Lesson focus

David: n our grammar point today, we want to introduce
Melody: 點知 (dim2 zi1)
David: How do you know?
Melody: 點知。對話入面,我哋聽到:「佢點知?」(dim2 zi1. deoi3 waa6 jap6 min6, ngo5 dei6 teng1 dou3: 「 keoi5 dim2 zi1 ?」)
David: How did she know?
Melody: 佢點知?(keoi5 dim2 zi1?)
David: Or how did he know.
Melody: 分開嚟講,「點」係問人問題嘅。(fan1 hoi1 lei4 gong2, 「 dim2 」 hai6 man6 jan4 man6 tai4 ge3.)
David: Right. We’ve run into this before and in these sentences, it’s functioning like the question how.
Melody: 點 (dim2 )
David: How.
Melody: 點 (dim2 )
David: And on the end of this, we add a single character verb.
Melody: 知 (zi1)
David: To know.
Melody: 知 (zi1)
David: Together this is how to know.
Melody: 點知?(dim2 zi1?)
David: How do you know?
Melody: 你點知?(nei5 dim2 zi1?)
David: Right. And the important thing to know is this is a general pattern we are going to see with a number of verbs. So it isn’t just a verb to know. We can use it with other verbs like
Melody: 點嚟?(dim2 lei4?)
David: Other verbs like 嚟 (lei4)
Melody: 嚟 (lei4)
David: To come.
Melody: 嚟 (lei4)
David: How did you come?
Melody: 你點嚟?(nei5 dim2 lei4?)
David: Or
Melody: 用 (jung6 )
David: To use.
Melody: 點用 (dim2 jung6)
David: How did you use? Let’s take a look at these in some sentences.
Melody: 譬如話:落咁大雨,你點嚟?(pei3 jyu4 waa6: lok6 gam3 daai6 jyu5, nei5 dim2 lei4?)
David: You might hear this if you show up unexpectedly to a party.
Melody: 落咁大雨,你點嚟? (lok6 gam3 daai6 jyu5, nei5 dim2 lei4?)
David: Right. It’s raining so hard. The host might ask, how did you come.
Melody: 你點嚟?(nei5 dim2 lei4?)
David: Right. They are not expecting guests because there has been a sudden thunderstorm.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3.)
David: Right. Let’s hear that again. It’s raining so hard. How did you come?
Melody: 落咁大雨,你點嚟?(lok6 gam3 daai6 jyu5, nei5 dim2 lei4)
我再俾你一個例子,譬如話:部機器點用?(ngo5 zoi3 bei2 nei5 jat1 go3 lai6 zi2, pei3 jyu4 waa6: bou6 gei1 hei3 dim2 jung6?)
David: How do you use this piece of machinery?
Melody: 部機器點用?(bou6 gei1 hei3 dim2 jung6?)
David: This piece of machinery, how do you use it? So that’s another thing to pay attention to when we are making questions for this pattern. It’s that the question word comes at the end of the sentence.
Melody: 係呀,冇錯。(hai6 aa3, mou5 co3.)
David: Let’s have one more example with a different verb.
Melody: 最後一個例子:點講?(zeoi3 hau6 jat1 go3 lai6 zi2: dim2 gong2?)
David: How do you say?
Melody: 點講?(dim2 gong2?)
David: Pay attention to the way we put this into a sentence.
Melody: 廣東話呢個點講?(gwong2 dung1 waa2 ni1 go3 dim2 gong2?)
David: In Cantonese, what do we call this?
Melody: 廣東話呢個點講?(gwong2 dung1 waa2 ni1 go3 dim2 gong2?)
David: In Cantonese, this – how do we say it? So to review, we have a new kind of question here made up of words we’ve already run into. The first is the question marker.
Melody: 點 (dim2)
David: Which we follow with a single character verb such as
Melody: 知,嚟,用,講 (zi1, lei4, jung6, gong2)
David: To form short question words that come at the end of sentences.
Melody: 點知?點用?點嚟?點講?(dim2 zi1? dim2 jung6? dim2 lei4? dim2 gong2?)
David: And with that, we are at the end of our lesson for today. Before we leave you though, there is something we wanted to remind you.
Melody: 如果你仲未係我哋嘅用戶,即刻嚟登錄我哋嘅網站啦!(jyu4 gwo2 nei5 zung6 mei6 hai6 ngo5 dei6 ge3 jung6 wu6, zik1 hak1 lei4 dang1 luk6 ngo5 dei6 ge3 mong5 zaam6 laa1!)
David: Right, and if you didn’t understand Melody there, you do need to come to CantoneseClass101 and sign up. We are going to make your Cantonese a lot better.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3.)
David: For now though, that’s all the time we have. If you have questions, leave them on the site and we are going to answer you quickly.
Melody: 希望喺上面見到你哋。(hei1 mong6 hai2 soeng6 min6 gin3 dou2 nei5 dei6.)
David: I am David.
Melody: 我係Melody. (ngo5 hai6 Melody .)
David: Thanks for listening and we will see you at CantoneseClass101.com.
Melody: Bye bye.

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CantoneseClass101.com
Monday at 6:30 pm
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What is your cure for a hangover?

CantoneseClass101.com
Wednesday at 11:26 am
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Hello Bruce,


Thanks for the question. 😉

It's also understandable if saying 點解你冇嚟上堂 instead of 點解你唔嚟上堂. However, there is a slight difference between 唔 and 冇. You can understand 唔+verb as an expression of intention, while 冇+verb carries a past tense meaning.


Ada

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Bruce
Saturday at 10:07 pm
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Hello,

Is it also possible to say 點解你冇嚟上堂 instead of 點解你唔嚟上堂?

Because further in the dialogue the sentence 但係老師知道你冇嚟上堂 uses 冇 instead of 唔, since it indicates the past tense?

Are these interchangeable in the past tence or is there a difference?

Thank you in advance!

CantoneseClass101.comVerified
Tuesday at 2:20 am
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Hello Vincent,


如果冇出現嘅話,就叫做「缺席」。

(jyu4 gwo2 mou5 ceot1 jin6 ge3 waa2, zau6 giu3 zou6 「 kyut3 zik6 」.)

If you do not show up, then we call it "absent".

出現(ceot1 jin6) ~ appear

現(jin6) ~ become visible

嘅話(ge3 waa2) ~ It is used in conjunction with "如果(jyu4 gwo2)~if ".

如果(jyu4 gwo2)...........嘅話(ge3 waa2). ~ If ..............in this situation.

話(waa2) ~ speak, talk, language


例子 (lai6 zi2)~example, case

例 lai6 - example

子 zi2 - son



siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Vincent
Sunday at 9:48 pm
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In this Lesson's comments, when Tim provides a translation of the transcript at 7.40 ("yu4 gwo2 | mou5 | coet1 jin6 | ge3 waa6 | zau6 | giu2 zou6 | kyut3 zik6: if|have not|turn up| situation/case|then|call it| be absent"), what does "jin6"話 mean there (after "coet1"), and what does "jin6"話 mean in general usage?


What is the literal meaning of "lai4"例 and "ji5"子 individually, and as said by Melody in this Lesson's transcript? (which I understand together mean "example?) (starting around 10.00) ("ngo5 zoi3 bei2 nei5 jat1 go3 lai6 zi2...我再俾你一個例子). Thank you, again, for your helpful explanations!

CantoneseClass101
Wednesday at 12:41 pm
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Hi Tim,


Thanks again for your great work! :thumbsup:

Just noticed another issue:

00:30 應該 | 係 | 兩 | 個 | 同學 | 喺度 | 傾緊偈

兩 (loeng5) and 二 (ji6) both means "two", but when it's followed by a measure work/classifier (in this case, 個), we use 兩 (loeng5).


Olivia

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Tim
Tuesday at 9:20 pm
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Lesson transcript:


00.30

應該 | 係 | 二 | 個 | 同學 | 喺度 | 傾緊偈

jing1 goi1 | loeng5 | go3 | tung4 hok6 | hai2 dou6 | king1 gan2 gai2

probably (= I think) | is | two | classifier | classmate | at location (“here”) | chatting (gan2 = “ing”)


00.40

冇錯 | 其中一個 | 冇 | 去 | 上 | 堂

mou5 co3 | kei4 zung1 jat1 go3 | mou5 | heoi3 | soeng5 | tong4

that’s right | among them one classifier (“one of them”) | has not | go | attend |class


02.40

如果 | 我 | 有啲 | 咁嘅 | 朋友 | 呢 |, 我 | 一定 | 激死

jyu4 gwo2 | ngo5 | jau5 di1 | gam2 ge3 | pang4 jau5 | le1 | ngo5 | jat1 ding6 | gik1 sei2

if | I | have plural | such | friend | topic marking particle followed by short pause ( = “. . .”) | I | definitely | be annoyed


03.00

Let’s get to the vocab section.

一齊 | 睇下

jat1 cai4 | tai2 haa5

together | have a look


5.25

可能 | 睇唔同嘅 | 老師

ho2 nang4 | tai2 m4 tung4 ge3 | lou5 si1

probably | depends on | teacher


6.10

多數 | 學生 | 會 | 驚 | 教務主任 | 多啲

do1 sou3 | hok6 saang1 | wui6 | geng1 | gaau3 mou6 zyu2 jam6 | do1 di1

most | students | will | be afraid of | admin director | more (than afraid of teacher)


7.40

如果 | 冇 | 出現 | 嘅話 | 就 | 叫做 | 缺席

jyu4 gwo2 | mou5 | coet1 jin6 | ge3 waa6 | zau6 | giu2 zou6 | kyut3 zik6

if | have not | turn up | situation/case | then | call it | be absent


8.38

對話 | 入面 | 我哋 | 聽到

deoi3 waa6 | jap6 min6 | ngo5 dei6 | teng1 dou2

dialog | inside | we | can hear


8.50

分開嚟講 |「點」| 喺 | 問人問題 | 嘅

fan1 hoi1 lai4 gong2 | dim2 | hai6 | man6 jan4 man6 tai4 | ge3

divide up so to speak (=saying it separately) | ‘dim’ | is | ask person question | nominalizer, turns preceding verb phrase into “askING someone a question”


10.00

落 | 咁 | 大雨 | 你 | 點 | 嚟

lok4 | gam3 | daai6 jyu5 | lei5 | dim2 | lei4

fall | so | big rain | you | how | come


我 | 再 | 俾 | 你 | 多 | 一 | 個 | 例子

ngo5 | joi3 | bei2 | lei5 | do1 | jat1 | go3 | lai4 ji5

I | again | give to | you | more | one | classifier | example


部 | 機器 | 點 | 用

bou6 | gei1 | hei3 | dim2 | jung5 (usually 6 but 5 when a question)

classifier for machinery (= the) | machine | how | use


11.02

Let’s have another example with a different verb.

最後 | 一 | 個 | 例子

joei3 hau6 | jat1 | go3 | lai4 zi5

lastly | one | classifier | example


廣東話,| 呢個 | 點 | 講

gwong2 dung1 waa2 | li1 | go3 | dim2 | gong2

Cantonese | this [classifier] (=this one) | how | say


12.12

如果 | 你 | 仲未 | 有 | 我哋 | 嘅 | 用戶 | 即刻 | 嚟 | 登陸 | 我哋 | 嘅 | 網站 | 啦

jyu4 gwo2 | lei5 | zung6 mei6 | jau5 | ngo5 dei6 | ge3 | jung6 wu6 | jik1 hak1 | lei4 | dang1 luk6 | ngo5 dei6 | ge3 | mong5 zaam6 | la1

if | you | still (not) yet | have | our | ‘s | membership | at once | come | stop off at | our | ‘s | website | request/imperative particle

CantoneseClass101
Tuesday at 2:21 pm
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Hi Tim,


It should be /gam2 ge3/ (in 咁嘅朋友), because there are two commonly used 咁's in Cantonese:

/gam2/ "such; like this; this way; in that case" [eg. 咁嘅人 (gam2 ge3 jan4) "people like this"]

/gam3/ "so (adj)" [eg. 咁重 (gam3 cung5) "so heavy"]


For 12:12

如果 | 你 | 仲未 | 有 | 我哋 | 嘅 | 用戶

jyu4 gwo2 | nei5 | zung6 mei6 | jau5 | ngo5 dei6 | ge3 | jung6 wu6 |

if | you | still (not) yet | have | our | ‘s | "membership"

- 用戶 usually means "user", but in this case, Melody meant "membership (to the site)", in this case, 有 as in the obtainment of membership status. Alternatively, one can say:

如果 | 你 | 仲未 | 係 | 我哋 | 嘅 | 用戶

jyu4 gwo2 | nei5 | zung6 mei6 | hai6 | ngo5 dei6 | ge3 | jung6 wu6 |

if | you | still (not) yet | be | our | ‘s | user


Regarding the negative form, there is no such phrase as 仲未冇 "not yet have not". We only say 仲未有 "to have yet".


Olivia

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Tim
Friday at 10:51 pm
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12.12

如果 | 你 | 仲未 | 有 | 我哋 | 嘅 | 用戶 | 即刻 | 嚟 | 登陸 | 我哋 | 嘅 | 網站 | 啦

jyu4 gwo2 | lei5 | zung6 mei6 | jau5 | ngo5 dei6 | ge3 | jung6 wu6 | jik1 hak1 | lei4 | dang1 luk6 | ngo5 dei6 | ge3 | mong5 zaam6

if | you | still (not) yet | have | our | ‘s | user | at once | come | stop off at | our | ‘s | website | request/imperative particle


Can you explain 如果 | 你 | 仲未 | 有 | 我哋 | 嘅 | 用戶. Why 有, not 唔係? Is it a rule with 仲未 that the verb 有 (jau5) acts as 'to be', and 冇 (mou5) serves as 'to not be'?

Tim
Friday at 8:57 pm
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shouldn't it be gam3 ge3, not gam2 ge3 (in 咁嘅朋友)?

CantoneseClass101
Thursday at 7:09 pm
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Hi Tim,


02:56 如果我有啲咁嘅朋友, 我一定激死 (jyu4 gwo2 ngo5 jau5 di1 gam2 ge3 pang4 jau5, ngo5 jat1 ding6 gik1 sei2) "if I have friends like that, I'd be so angry"

08:51 嚟講 (lei4 gong2) means "to say" or "so to speak"; so 分開嚟講 means "to say it separately".


Olivia

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