Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
David: Welcome to cantoneseclass101.com. I am David.
Nicole: 大家好,我係Nicole。(daai6 gaa1 hou2, ngo5 hai6 Nicole.)
David: And we are here with upper beginner, season 1, Lesson 25.
Nicole: 係呀,最後一堂喇!(hai6 aa3, zeoi3 hau6 jat1 tong4 laa3!)
David: Yeah this is the last one in the series and it’s all about A Mysterious Animal in Hong Kong.
Nicole: 係呀,唔知係貓定狗。(hai6 aa3, m4 zi1 hai6 maau1 ding6 gau2.)
David: Right. So we’ve got a dialogue that is between two people talking while they are holding a pet.
Nicole: 冇錯。(mou5 co3.)
David: We are not quite sure what the pet is but we do know that they are talking in casual Cantonese as always. Let’s get to the dialogue.
Nicole: 聽下個對話啦。(teng1 haa5 go3 deoi3 waa6 laa1.)
DIALOGUE
A:佢好可愛呀! (keoi5 hou2 ho2 oi3 aa3 ! )
B:你可以抱吓佢。(nei5 ho2 ji3 pou6 haa5 keoi5.)
A:嘩,點解佢可以跳咁高。 (waa1, dim2 gaai2 keoi5 ho2 ji3 tiu3 gam3 gou1. )
B:貓本來就可以跳好高。 (maau1 bun2 loi4 zau6 ho2 ji3 tiu3 hou2 gou1. )
A:吓?我以為佢係隻狗嚟㗎。(haa5? ngo5 ji5 wai4 keoi5 hai6 zek3 gau2 lei4 gaa3.)
David: Once more, a bit more slowly.
A:佢好可愛呀! (keoi5 hou2 ho2 oi3 aa3 ! )
B:你可以抱吓佢。 (nei5 ho2 ji3 pou6 haa5 keoi5.)
A:嘩,點解佢可以跳咁高。 (waa1, dim2 gaai2 keoi5 ho2 ji3 tiu3 gam3 gou1. )
B:貓本來就可以跳好高。 (maau1 bun2 loi4 zau6 ho2 ji3 tiu3 hou2 gou1. )
A:吓?我以為佢係隻狗嚟㗎。(haa5? ngo5 ji5 wai4 keoi5 hai6 zek3 gau2 lei4 gaa3.)
David: And now, with the English translation.
A:佢好可愛呀! (keoi5 hou2 ho2 oi3 aa3 ! )
A: It is so cute!
B:你可以抱吓佢。 (nei5 ho2 ji3 pou6 haa5 keoi5.)
B: You can hold it.
A:嘩,點解佢可以跳咁高。(waa1, dim2 gaai2 keoi5 ho2 ji3 tiu3 gam3 gou1. )
A: Wow, how come it can jump so high?
B:貓本來就可以跳好高。 (maau1 bun2 loi4 zau6 ho2 ji3 tiu3 hou2 gou1. )
B: Cats can jump really high naturally.
A:吓?我以為佢係隻狗嚟㗎。(haa5? ngo5 ji5 wai4 keoi5 hai6 zek3 gau2 lei4 gaa3.)
A: Huh? I thought it was a dog.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
David: We’ve already done dog, we’ve already done cat. We know that you know them.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: And since we are getting up here, what we want to focus on today instead is adjectives really to describe animals.
Nicole: 冇錯,好多形容詞可以嚟形容貓貓狗狗。(mou5 co3, hou2 do1 jing4 jung4 ci4 ho2 ji3 lei4 jing4 jung4 maau1 maau1 gau2 gau2.)
David: Yeah regardless of if it’s a cat or dog.
Nicole: 冇錯。(mou5 co3.)
David: Let’s get to our vocab section.
VOCAB LIST
Nicole: 可愛 (ho2 oi3)
David: Cute.
Nicole: 可愛 (ho2 oi3) [slow] 可愛 (ho2 oi3) [normal speed]。乖 (gwaai1)
David: Obedient.
Nicole: 乖 (gwaai1) [slow] 乖 (gwaai1) [normal speed]。溫柔 (wan1 jau4)
David: Gentle.
Nicole: 溫柔 (wan1 jau4) [slow] 溫柔 (wan1 jau4) [normal speed]。善良 (sin6 loeng4)
David: Kind.
Nicole: 善良 (sin6 loeng4) [slow] 善良 (sin6 loeng4) [normal speed]。可惡 (ho2 wu3)
David: Wicked.
Nicole: 可惡 (ho2 wu3) [slow] 可惡 (ho2 wu3) [normal speed]。兇惡 (hung1 ngok3)
David: Savage
Nicole: 兇惡 (hung1 ngok3) [slow] 兇惡 (hung1 ngok3) [normal speed]。抱 (pou6)
David: To carry.
Nicole: 抱 (pou6) [slow] 抱 (pou6) [normal speed]。攬 (laam2)
David: To hug.
Nicole: 攬 (laam2)[slow] 攬 (laam2) [normal speed]。
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
David: Okay. So there is lot of stuff to talk about today, not a lot to review. This is mostly new. First and most importantly we have the word cute.
Nicole: 可愛。(ho2 oi3.)
David: Which you can use to describe any animal and make its owner happy.
Nicole: Yeah of course. 可愛 (ho2 oi3 ) and there is another way to say that 得意。(dak1 ji3.)
David: This is a bit more casual.
Nicole: Yeah 得意。(dak1 ji3.)
David: So you could say, wow, your dog is really cute.
Nicole: 嘩!你隻狗好得意呀!(waa1! nei5 zek3 gau2 hou2 dak1 ji3 aa3! )
David: Or how about, wow, that’s really cute. What is it?
Nicole: 嘩!好得意呀!咩黎架?(waa1! hou2 dak1 ji3 aa3! me1 lai4 gaa3?)
David: Next up, we’ve got the word obedient.
Nicole: 乖。(gwaai1.)
David: Used more often to describe dogs than cats.
Nicole: That’s right 乖。(gwaai1.) For example, 你隻狗好乖呀!(nei5 zek3 gau2 hou2 gwaai1 aa3! )
David: Your dog is really obedient.
Nicole: Or 嘩!你隻貓好乖呀!(waa1! nei5 zek3 maau1 hou2 gwaai1 aa3! )
David: That is, that’s less likely.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: An interesting thing is that, often this will mean kind of the same thing as cute.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: I mean technically it doesn’t but people describing a cute animal will still use this word to describe it.
Nicole: Yeah it’s the most general compliment actually to pass.
David: Yeah. Now if you have an animal that is not cute and not obedient, people probably won’t mention that but they do describe animals negatively using the following words.
Nicole: 可惡 (ho2 wu3)
David: Wicked
Nicole: Or 兇惡 (hung1 ngok3)
David: Savage
Nicole: And you can simply say 惡 (ngok3)
David: Savage
Nicole: Yeah.
David: It’s kind of wicked and savage they are kind of…
Nicole: But 可惡 (ho2 wu3 ) it’s too strong in tone you know. You are really cursing this animal. You know what I mean. You don’t want to do that.
David: So you could use it to describe to say, your up door neighbor’s dog which keeps barking in the evening.
Nicole: Yeah and it’s really wicked.
David: That dog is – it’s evil.
Nicole: Yeah 太可惡喇,隻狗太可惡啦。(taai3 ho2 wu3 laa3, zek3 gau2 taai3 ho2 wu3 laa3.) but normally you just say 隻狗比較惡。(zek3 gau2 bei2 gaau3 ngok3.)
David: And that’s quite savage.
Nicole: Yeah quite 比較惡。(bei2 gaau3 ngok3.)
David: You are not taking it all the way.
Nicole: That’s right. You don’t want to do that.
David: Yeah. Moving on, we’ve got these two verbs at the end of our vocab list that are a bit confusing.
Nicole: Yeah they are 抱 (pou5)
David: Which means to carry or to hold.
Nicole: And 攬 (laam2)
David: Which means to hug.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: This is confusing because technically to carry or hold means you are holding it in your arms and your chest.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: So it’s – they kind of mean the same thing but not really.
Nicole: But not really yeah. In colloquial Cantonese 抱 (pou5 ) is more like to carry it to somewhere.
David: Yeah.
Nicole: But when you say 攬 (laam2 ) it has only one meaning that is to hug.
David: To give love.
Nicole: Yeah to give love.
David: Yeah. So again
Nicole: 抱 (pou5)
David: Technically means embracing something but here it’s used for carrying and moving and holding.
Nicole: Yeah, for example 抱隻狗出街 (pou5 zek3 gau2 ceot1 gaai1) is to carry the dog to the street.
David: Yeah.
Nicole: And when you take it for the walk but you don’t carry your dog. Yeah I just realized that.
David: No, no I have seen some people in Hong Kong that go for a walk carrying their dog.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: It’s like it doesn’t.
Nicole: Small size dogs, maybe not the large one.
David: It gets tired walking. If you bring a pet to Hong Kong, you should do this too and you are going to let us know on the site..
Nicole: Definitely.
David: If you get any reaction from people. I was kind of surprised when I see it. Anyway, moving on, let’s get to our grammar point.

Lesson focus

David: Okay Nicole, our grammar point comes from which line in the dialogue?
Nicole: 貓本來就可以跳好高。(maau1 bun2 loi4 zau6 ho2 ji3 tiu3 hou2 gou1.)
David: Cats can jump really high naturally.
Nicole: 貓本來就可以跳好高。(maau1 bun2 loi4 zau6 ho2 ji3 tiu3 hou2 gou1.)
David: It’s an adverb day at CantoneseClass101. We want to talk about this adverb.
Nicole: 本來 (bun2 loi4)
David: And this has a bunch of meanings.
Nicole: It can mean like as in the sentence naturally or originally.
David: Or you could be just talking about the way something used to be in the past.
Nicole: That’s right.
David: Right. And how exactly to translate it really depends on the sentence.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: Like in the dialogue, we were talking about a cat.
Nicole: 貓本來就可以跳好高。(maau1 bun2 loi4 zau6 ho2 ji3 tiu3 hou2 gou1.)
David: Yeah. So they are not saying that in the past, the cats used to be able to jump really high. They are saying naturally or originally because of the way they are….
Nicole: Yeah.
David: They are their fundamental nature. So the interesting thing about this is, you will hear it used to describe kind of natural characteristics of something, things that exist as a result of the state of nature.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: But also more commonly describing actions and situations that exist in the past.
Nicole: For example, 佢本來係老師。(keoi5 bun2 loi4 hai6 lou5 si1.)
David: He used to be a teacher.
Nicole: Yeah but now he is a doctor.
David: Yeah.
Nicole: Oh which is even better. 佢本來係老師,而家係醫生。(keoi5 bun2 loi4 hai6 lou5 si1, ji4 gaa1 hai6 ji1 sang1.)
David: How about a sentence like I used to prefer dogs, but now I prefer cats.
Nicole: 我本來鐘意狗,依家鍾意貓。(ngo5 bun2 loi4 zung1 ji3 gau2, ji1 gaa1 zung1 ji3 maau1.)
David: And you can switch that around.
Nicole: Yeah 我本來鐘意貓,依家鍾意狗。(ngo5 bun2 loi4 zung1 ji3 maau1, ji1 gaa1 zung1 ji3 gau2.)
David: Yeah. Another example for the example of naturally talking about cats, you’d say that you know, cats naturally like to eat fish.
Nicole: 貓本來就鐘意食魚。(maau1 bun2 loi4 zau6 zung1 ji3 sik6 jyu2.)
David: And that’s something you hear quite a lot actually.
Nicole: That’s right. 本來就 (bun2 loi4 zau6) It’s kind of a common pattern.
David: Yeah it’s providing even more emphasis to this.
Nicole: Yeah to say that yeah, it naturally is this way.
David: Yeah. So in that sentence yeah.
Nicole: 貓本來就鐘意食魚。(maau1 bun2 loi4 zau6 zung1 ji3 sik6 jyu2.)
David: Yeah. And so that’s describing nature but it is again you know, describing the past. You might say for instance, Hong Kong used to be a fishing village.
Nicole: 香港本來係漁村。(hoeng1 gong2 bun2 loi4 hai6 jyu4 cyun1.)
David: Hong Kong used to be a fishing village but now it’s a huge city.
Nicole: 香港本來係漁村,而家係一個大城市。(hoeng1 gong2 bun2 loi4 hai6 jyu4 cyun1, ji4 gaa1 hai6 jat1 go3 daai6 sing4 si5.)
David: Yeah. So this is a pretty simple grammar point. It’s an adverb that we stick in front of verbs of course but it’s also a bit so. It can be naturally, it can be originally, it can mean in the past. How exactly to translate it depends on context.
Nicole: 冇錯,「本來就」就係咁用㗎喇。(mou5 co3, 「 bun2 loi4 zau6 」 zau6 hai6 gam3 jung6 gaa3 laa3.)

Outro

David: Yeah and with that, that brings us to the end of this lesson and the end of season 1, upper beginner.
Nicole: Yeah.
David: If you have any questions about this lesson or about any of the lessons, we really strongly encourage you to leave a note on the site.
Nicole: Or email us.
David: Right. Our address is contact us at cantoneseclass101.com. For now though, from Hong Kong.
Nicole: 我係Nicole。(ngo5 hai6 Nicole.)
David: And I am David. Thanks for listening.
Nicole: Bye bye.

Grammar

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CantoneseClass101.com
Monday at 6:30 pm
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你鍾意咩動物?

What kind of animal do you like?

Vincent
Wednesday at 10:55 pm
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What does "mei5"美 and "dak1" literally mean individually and when combined together to be translated as "virtue" in the vocabulary sentence for "sin6 loeng4: kind?" (sin6 loeng4 hai6 mei5 dak1. Kindness is a virtue").


What is the literal translation of "bun2"本 and "loi4"來, and can you explain how when combined together they have the different meanings of "naturally" or "originally?" Thank you, again, for your helpful explanations!