Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
David: Welcome to cantoneseclass101.com. I am David.
Melody: 大家好,我係Melody。(daai6 gaa1 hou2 ,ngo5 hai6 Melody 。)
David: And we are here today with intermediate, season 1, Lesson 21. Getting Dirty in Hong Kong.
Melody: 唔,咁呢個對話呢應該係個媽咪同個仔之間嘅對話。(m4 ,gam3 ni1 go3 deoi3 waa6 ne1 jing1 goi1 hai6 go3 maa1 mi6 tung4 go3 zai2 zi1 gaan1 ge3 deoi3 waa6 。)
David: Right. So it’s between a mom and a child and the child is not the cleanest child in Hong Kong.
Melody: 咁呢度入面呢有好多香港人嘅地道用語啦!(gam2 ni1 dou6 jap6 min6 ne1 jau5 hou2 do1 hoeng1 gong2 jan4 ge3 dei6 dou6 jung6 jyu5 laa1 !)
David: Right. So the dialogue itself is a bit shorter and maybe a bit simpler than some others we’ve got at this level but we’ve also got a really lovely and really colloquial point here to talk about. Let’s get to the dialogue.
DIALOGUE
A: 你件衫好污糟!(A: nei5 gin6 saam1 hou2 wu1 zou1 !)
B: 頭先同班兄弟踢波⋯⋯(B: tau4 sin1 tung4 baan1 hing1 dai6 tek3 bo1...)
A: 你成身都好邋遢!(A: nei5 seng4 san1 dou1 hou2 laat6 taat3 !)
B: 踢踢下落雨,我仲跌親!(B: tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5, ngo5 zung6 dit3 can1 !)
A: 唔好講咁多,除件衫俾我先。(A: m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1, ceoi4 gin6 saam1 bei2 ngo5 sin1.)
B: 嗱!攞去啦。(B: naa4 ! lo2 heoi3 laa1.)
A: 你快啲去沖乾淨個身!(A: nei5 faai3 di1 heoi3 cung1 gon1 zeng6 go3 san1 !)
David: Once more, a bit slower.
A: 你件衫好污糟!(A: nei5 gin6 saam1 hou2 wu1 zou1 !)
B: 頭先同班兄弟踢波⋯⋯(B: tau4 sin1 tung4 baan1 hing1 dai6 tek3 bo1...)
A: 你成身都好邋遢!(A: nei5 seng4 san1 dou1 hou2 laat6 taat3 !)
B: 踢踢下落雨,我仲跌親!(B: tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5, ngo5 zung6 dit3 can1 !)
A: 唔好講咁多,除件衫俾我先。(A: m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1, ceoi4 gin6 saam1 bei2 ngo5 sin1.)
B: 嗱!攞去啦。(B: naa4 ! lo2 heoi3 laa1.)
A: 你快啲去沖乾淨個身!(A: nei5 faai3 di1 heoi3 cung1 gon1 zeng6 go3 san1 !)
David: And now, with the English translation.
A: 你件衫好污糟!(A: nei5 gin6 saam1 hou2 wu1 zou1 !)
A: Your shirt is really dirty!
B: 頭先同班兄弟踢波⋯⋯(B: tau4 sin1 tung4 baan1 hing1 dai6 tek3 bo1...)
B: I was playing soccer with my friends just now.
A: 你成身都好邋遢!(A: nei5 seng4 san1 dou1 hou2 laat6 taat3 !)
A: You're filthy from head to toe!
B: 踢踢下落雨,我仲跌親!(B: tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5, ngo5 zung6 dit3 can1 !)
B: It rained while we were playing, and I fell.
A: 唔好講咁多,除件衫俾我先。(A: m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1, ceoi4 gin6 saam1 bei2 ngo5 sin1.)
A: Stop talking. Take off your shirt and give it to me.
B: 嗱!攞去啦。(B: naa4 ! lo2 heoi3 laa1.)
B: Here your are.
A: 你快啲去沖乾淨個身!(A: nei5 faai3 di1 heoi3 cung1 gon1 zeng6 go3 san1 !)
A: Go wash up and clean up your body!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Melody: 唔,其實喺香港呢咁細嘅地方, 想踢波都幾難㗎!(m4 ,kei4 sat6 hai2 hoeng1 gong2 ne1 gam3 sai3 ge3 dei6 fong1 , soeng2 tek3 bo1 dou1 gei2 naan4 gaa3 !)
David: Well you know, on the island, if you go out to Lantau island or other places, there is actually a lot of space. So…
Melody: 唔,可能。(m4 ,ho2 nang4 。)
David: It’s not impossible but anyway our vocab today is about cleanliness and dirtiness and some special words for wearing and taking off clothing.
VOCAB LIST
Melody: 污糟。(wu1 zou1。)
David: Dirty.
Melody: 污 糟, 污糟, 邋遢。(wu1 zou1, wu1 zou1, laat6 taat3。)
David: Filthy.
Melody: 邋 遢, 邋遢, 乾淨。(laat6 taat3, laat6 taat3, gon1 zeng6。)
David: Clean.
Melody: 乾 淨, 乾淨, 頭先。(gon1 zeng6, gon1 zeng6, tau4 sin1。)
David: Just now.
Melody: 頭 先, 頭先, 踢波。(tau4 sin1 , tau4 sin1 , tek3 bo1。)
David: To play soccer.
Melody: 踢 波, 踢波, 唔好講咁多。(tek3 bo1, tek3 bo1, m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1。)
David: Stop talking.
Melody: 唔 好 講 咁 多, 唔好講咁多, 除衫。(m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1, m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1, ceoi4 saam1。)
David: To take off a shirt.
Melody: 除 衫, 除衫, 沖涼。(ceoi4 saam1, ceoi4 saam1, cung1 loeng4。)
David: To take a shower.
Melody: 沖 涼, 沖涼, 成身。(cung1 loeng4, cung1 loeng4, seng4 san1。)
David: The whole body.
Melody: 成 身, 成身。(seng4 san1, seng4 san1。)
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
David: Okay. Let’s take a closer look at some of these words and phrases. Our first word is
Melody: 污糟。(wu1 zou1 。)
David: Dirty.
Melody: 污糟。(wu1 zou1 。)
David: Dirty.
Melody: 另外一個詞可以話 邋遢。(ling6 ngoi6 jat1 go3 ci4 ho2 ji5 waa6 laat6 taat3 。)
David: Filthy.
Melody: 邋遢。(laat6 taat3 。)
David: Filthy. And they are actually more or less the same.
Melody: 唔,但係..... (m4 ,daan6 hai6 .....)
David: And in English, dirty is a bit less dirty than filthy but in Cantonese, it is roughly the same.
Melody: 唔,其實差別唔大, 但係污糟多數係形容一啲嘢或者一個地方, 邋遢可能形容人。(m4 ,kei4 sat6 caa1 bit6 m4 daai6 , daan6 hai6 wu1 zou1 do1 sou3 hai6 jing4 jung4 jat1 di1 je5 waak6 ze2 jat1 go3 dei6 fong1 , laat6 taat3 ho2 nang4 jing4 jung4 jan4 。)
David: So the latter we use more to describe people.
Melody: 係,冇錯。(hai6 ,mou5 co3 。)
David: Right like a child who’s been playing in the mud.
Melody: 唔,冇錯,你好邋遢呀!多數話個人好邋遢。(m4 ,mou5 co3 ,nei5 hou2 laat6 taat3 aa3 !do1 sou3 waa6 go3 jan4 hou2 laat6 taat3 。)
David: Yeah. Okay and let’s try putting these in a sample sentence.
Melody: 譬如話 佢仲未沖涼,成身都好污糟。(pei3 jyu4 waa6 keoi5 zung6 mei6 cung1 loeng4 ,seng4 san1 dou1 hou2 wu1 zou1 。)
David: He hasn’t washed off and is totally dirty.
Melody: 或者話 佢仲未沖涼,成身都好邋遢。(waak6 ze2 waa6 keoi5 zung6 mei6 cung1 loeng4 ,seng4 san1 dou1 hou2 laat6 taat3 。)
David: Right. So these two words are interchangeable.
Melody: 污糟, 邋遢。(wu1 zou1 , laat6 taat3 。)
David: Our next word is the opposite.
Melody: 乾淨。(gon1 zeng6 。)
David: Clean.
Melody: 乾淨。(gon1 zeng6 。)
David: Clean.
Melody: 佢係污糟同埋邋遢嘅相反詞, 乾淨。(keoi5 hai6 wu1 zou1 tung4 maai4 laat6 taat3 ge3 soeng1 faan2 ci4 , gon1 zeng6 。)
David: Clean. Now in our dialogue, the child gets dirty doing what?
Melody: 踢波。(tek3 bo1 。)
David: To play ball.
Melody: 踢波。(tek3 bo1 。)
David: Or literally to play soccer.
Melody: 唔,咁除咗踢波之外呢, 我哋仲會成日話 打波。(m4 ,gam2 ceoi4 zo2 tek3 bo1 zi1 ngoi6 ne1 , ngo5 dei6 zung6 wui2 sing4 jat6 waa6 daa2 bo1 。)
David: This is a more generic word that means to play ball.
Melody: 冇錯,打波,譬如話 打羽毛球。(mou5 co3 ,daa2 bo1 ,pei3 jyu4 waa6 daa2 jyu5 mou4 kau4 。)
David: Right. So it could be badminton.
Melody: 打璧球。(daa2 bik1 kau4 。)
David: It could be squash.
Melody:打籃球。(daa2 laam4 kau4 。)
David: It could be basketball. It’s just to hit the ball.
Melody: 唔,所以打波有可能係 打羽毛球, 打璧球, 打籃球。(m4 ,so2 ji5 daa2 bo1 jau5 ho2 nang4 hai6 daa2 jyu5 mou4 kau4 , daa2 bik1 kau4 , daa2 laam4 kau4 。)
David: Yeah. You are using your hands whereas with soccer, you are using your feet.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3 。)
David: So it’s
Melody: 踢波。(tek3 bo1 。)
David: So if you go to the gym, you might hear someone say, on Monday we play soccer. On Tuesday, we play squash.
Melody: 星期一我哋去踢波,星期二我哋去打壁球。(sing1 kei4 jat1 ngo5 dei6 heoi3 tek3 bo1 ,sing1 kei4 ji6 ngo5 dei6 heoi3 daa2 bik1 kau4 。)
David: Right. On Monday, we play soccer. On Tuesday, we play ball.
Melody: 星期一我哋去踢波,星期二我哋去打波。(sing1 kei4 jat1 ngo5 dei6 heoi3 tek3 bo1 ,sing1 kei4 ji6 ngo5 dei6 heoi3 daa2 bo1 。)
David: Right.
Melody: 我哋下一個詞係 除衫。(ngo5 dei6 haa6 jat1 go3 ci4 hai6 ceoi4 saam1 。)
David: To take off a shirt.
Melody: 除衫, 其實 除 係一個動詞。(ceoi4 saam1 , kei4 sat6 ceoi4 hai6 jat1 go3 dung6 ci4 。)
David: Right. It’s a verb, it means to remove.
Melody: 唔,除。(m4 ,ceoi4 。)
David: And in this case, we are removing what?
Melody: 衫。(saam1 。)
David: To take off a shirt.
Melody: 除衫。(ceoi4 saam1 。)
David: And this is a pattern. We can also take off pants.
Melody: 除褲。(ceoi4 fu3 。)
David: Or take off shoes.
Melody: 除鞋。(ceoi4 haai4 。)
David: So if you go to the doctor’s office, you might hear, take off your shirt. I need to give you an injection.
Melody: 除衫吖唔該,我需要幫你打針。(ceoi4 saam1 aa1 m4 goi1 ,ngo5 seoi1 jiu3 bong1 nei5 daa2 zam1 。)
David: Take off your shirt. I need to give you an injection.
Melody: 除衫吖唔該,我需要幫你打針。(ceoi4 saam1 aa1 m4 goi1 ,ngo5 seoi1 jiu3 bong1 nei5 daa2 zam1 。)
David: So relatively simple vocab in this lesson. Melody, what are the key words again?
Melody: 污糟, 邋遢, 乾淨, 踢波, 打波, 除衫。(wu1 zou1 , laat6 taat3 , gon1 zeng6 , tek3 bo1 , daa2 bo1 , ceoi4 saam1 。)
David: And now our grammar point.

Lesson focus

David: As we said, our dialogue this lesson is a bit simple but we are making up for it with the grammar point that’s really, really great.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3 。)
David: And really, really native.
Melody: 好有用嘅一個句子。(hou2 jau5 jung6 ge3 jat1 go3 geoi3 zi2 。)
David: Yes. Okay now, as we said, our dialogue this lesson, it’s a bit simple however we are making up for it with a grammar point that is absolutely intermediate and so useful.
Melody: 冇錯,真係好有用,所以一定要記住。(mou5 co3 ,zan1 hai6 hou2 jau5 jung6 ,so2 ji5 jat1 ding6 jiu3 gei3 zyu6 。)
David: Yeah and this is also, it’s a really native Cantonese expression.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3 。)
David: Now we hear it in this line in the dialogue.
Melody: 踢踢下落雨。(tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5 。)
David: Now that’s what the child says when he is explaining how he got dirty. He says,
Melody: 踢踢下落雨。(tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5 。)
David: We were playing soccer and then it started to rain.
Melody: 踢踢 下落雨。(tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5 。)
David: We were playing soccer and it started to rain. Now that’s a complex translation. What’s really happening in Cantonese is we are saying, kick and kick for a bit and then another action happens.
Melody: 踢踢下, 跟住出現一個情況。(tek3 tek3 haa5 , gan1 zyu6 ceot1 jin6 jat1 go3 cing4 fong3 。)
David: Right. So kick, kick a bit and then it started to rain.
Melody: 踢踢下落雨。(tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5 。)
David: Right. Now structurally, what we’ve got is we’ve got a two character verb that consists of an action plus an object. In this case, the verb is to play soccer.
Melody: 踢波。 (tek3 bo1 。)
David: It could be to play ball.
Melody: 打波。(daa2 bo1 。)
David: In which case, we’d say
Melody: 打打下 落雨。(daa2 daa2 haa5 lok6 jyu5 。)
David: We were playing ball and it started to rain.
Melody: 打打下 落雨。(daa2 daa2 haa5 lok6 jyu5 。)
David: What about eating?
Melody: 食食下。(sik6 sik6 haa5 。)
David: I was eating and my stomach started to hurt.
Melody: 食食下 肚痛。(sik6 sik6 haa5 tou5 tung3 。)
David: I was eating and my stomach started to hurt.
Melody: 食食下 肚痛。(sik6 sik6 haa5 tou5 tung3 。)
David: Right. So the verb, verb happens and then right in the middle, you are not done yet something else happens.
Melody: 冇錯,你做緊一樣嘢,跟住突然間出現一個情況。(mou5 co3 ,nei5 zou6 gan2 jat1 joeng6 je5 ,gan1 zyu6 dat6 jin4 gaan1 ceot1 jin6 jat1 go3 cing4 fong3 。)
David: Right. So we’ve got two more examples for you. Melody, what’s next?
Melody: 唔,譬如話 跑跑下跌親。(m4 ,pei3 jyu4 waa6 paau2 paau2 haa5 dit3 can1 。)
David: Right. So he was running, he was in the middle of running and he fell down.
Melody: 唔,當佢跑緊嗰陣時跌親, 跑跑下跌親。(m4 ,dong1 keoi5 paau2 gan2 go2 zan6 si4 dit3 can1 , paau2 paau2 haa5 dit3 can1 。)
David: He was running and he fell down.
Melody: 或者我哋有陣時會話 講講下比人打斷咗。(waak6 ze2 ngo5 dei6 jau5 zan6 si4 wui2 waa6 gong2 gong2 haa5 bei2 jan4 daa2 tyun5 zo2 。)
David: Right. So the verb there is,
Melody: 講嘢。(gong2 je5 。)
David: To speak words.
Melody: 講嘢。(gong2 je5 。)
David: So we are repeating the verb part of that.
Melody: 講講下。(gong2 gong2 haa5 。)
David: And then we add the action that’s interrupting half way through.
Melody: 講講下比人打斷咗。(gong2 gong2 haa5 bei2 jan4 daa2 tyun5 zo2 。)
David: Right. He was in the middle of talking and someone interrupted.
Melody: 講講下比人打斷咗。(gong2 gong2 haa5 bei2 jan4 daa2 tyun5 zo2 。)
David: So this is a general pattern you can use with any two character verb that consists of a verb and then a built-in object.
Melody: 冇錯。(mou5 co3 。)
David: Right. It can be playing soccer
Melody: 踢波, 踢踢下。(tek3 bo1 , tek3 tek3 haa5 。)
David: Eating food.
Melody: 食嘢,食食下。(sik6 je5 ,sik6 sik6 haa5 。)
David: Talking.
Melody: 講嘢, 講講下。(gong2 je5 , gong2 gong2 haa5 。)
David: Or any other verb of its class.
Melody: 冇錯,你講得啱。(mou5 co3 ,nei5 gong2 dak1 ngaam1 。)
David: And what a useful thing to know how to say it Melody. I mean, in Cantonese, this is so simple. We were doing it and then something else happened.
Melody: 冇錯,所以成日都會用到呢個詞。(mou5 co3 ,so2 ji5 sing4 jat6 dou1 wui2 jung6 dou3 ni1 go3 ci4 。)
David: Yeah. We were playing soccer and it started to rain.
Melody: 踢踢下落雨。(tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5 。)
David: Or as in the case in our dialogue, it rained while we were playing and I fell.
Melody: 踢踢下落雨, 我仲跌親。 踢踢下落雨, 仲跌親。(tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5 , ngo5 zung6 dit3 can1。 tek3 tek3 haa5 lok6 jyu5 , zung6 dit3 can1 。)
David: Right. So once more, a simple grammar point that’s relatively high level.
Melody: 冇錯,而且係好有用嘅。(mou5 co3 ,ji4 ce2 hai6 hou2 jau5 jung6 ge3 。)
David: Yeah and you are going to want to use this anytime something happens in the middle of something else.
Melody: 係呀!冇錯。(hai6 aa3 !mou5 co3 。)

Outro

David: Okay. So that’s our lesson for today. It’s all the time we have. Thanks for listening and we will see you at cantoneseclass101.com
Melody: 好希望下次再見。 (hou2 hei1 mong6 haa6 ci3 zoi3 gin3 。 ) Bye bye.

17 Comments

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CantoneseClass101.com
Tuesday at 6:30 pm
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Cantoneseclass@101.com
Sunday at 2:15 pm
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Hello j2o,


Thank you for your hard work and detail observation. 👍


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

j2o
Monday at 9:19 pm
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That's great. Mystery solved! Thanks for the quick response.

j2o

Cantoneseclass@101.com
Saturday at 6:52 pm
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Hello j2o,


唔好講咁多,睇比賽結果就知邊個勁啦。

m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1, tai2 bei2 coi3 git3 gwo2 zau6 zi1 bin1 go3 ging3 laa1.

Stop talking, look at who wins the termite and we'll see who is better.


You are right again! Very good guess. 👍

就(zau6) can be translated as "then" or "right away, thereupon" in this sentence.


睇(tai2)~ look

比賽(bei2 coi3)~ competition, tournament, game

結果(git3 gwo2)~ result


I think "tournament" is OK too. 👍


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

j2o
Friday at 4:02 am
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This was a really good lesson, thanks, and even the spoken Cantonese through the whole lesson is starting to become a little clearer, especially when I put the speed at x0.75 and follow the transcript. A couple of small questions, though:


a) In the sentence "唔好講咁多,睇比賽結果就知邊個勁啦", what is the function of 就? This is a word that continues to perplex me because it seems to have so many functions. Here it seems like it means something like 'then'. Is that right? If not, please can you explain?


b) In the same sentence, the translation reads 'look at who wins the termite'. Surely this is a mistake! Perhaps 'termite' is an American word used for a competition, but we certainly don't use it in England. Should it say 'tournament' maybe?


All my best wishes,

CantoneseClass101
Saturday at 3:53 am
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Hi penny lawton,


In the case of verbs with 2 or more characters, you add 緊 (gan2) "-ing" after the first character.

For instance, jau4 seoi2 "to swim" -> (ngo5) jau4 gan2 seoi2 "(I'm) swimming"

zyu2 faan6 "to cook" -> (ngo5) zyu2 gan2 faan6 "(I'm) cooking"

daa2 maa4 zoek2 "to play mahjong" -> (ngo5) daa2 gan2 maa4 zoek2 "I'm playing mahjong"


So in your sample sentences, "I was swimming and it started to rain" ngo5 jau4 gan2 seoi2 go2 zan6 lok6 jyu5.

"I was cooking and the phone rang" ngo5 zyu2 gan2 faan6 go2 zan6 din6 waa2 hoeng5.

"I was running and I saw a snake" ngo5 paau2 gan2 bou6 go2 zan6 gin3 dou2 tiu4 se4.

(go2 zan6 = at that time; when)


Olivia

Team CantoneseClass101.com

penny lawton
Saturday at 8:38 pm
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siuling nei5 hou2

When something happens when you are doing something and you have a compound. verb such as jau6 seoi1 swimming ,zyu2 faan4 cooking paau2 bou6 running etc how would you arrange the sentence i.e I was swimming and it started to rain , I was cooking and the phone rang, I was running and I saw a snake etc m4goi1 lo taai

Cantoneseclass@101.com
Sunday at 8:48 am
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Hello Vincent,


勁(ging6) means "strong or powerful, so most of the time it is used to describe how strong or powerful something is such as

勁風( ging6 fung1) ~ strong wind.

So we don`t usually use this word to describe good food. But you can use this word to describe "a car" or "someone`s idea" when you think that they are really great and amazingly good.


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Vincent
Sunday at 5:17 pm
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Then "ging3" does mean "better?" And can I use "ging3" to mean "better" in any or all other contexts, such as food, objects or abstract things -- "bin1 go3 caan1 ging3 laa1?" (which dish is better?) or "bin3 bou6 ce1 ging3 laa1?" (which car is better?) or ""ngo5 ge3 ji3 gin3 ging3 laa1!" (My idea is better!)


Thank you, again!

Cantoneseclass@101.com
Sunday at 8:46 am
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Hello Vincent,


嗱!攞去啦。

naa4 ! lo2 heoi3 laa1.

Here your are.

The meaning can be so different depending on the context and the way and the attitude when you say this sentence.

I think it sounds rude if you say this when you present your passport or driver license to the officer.

You can simply say 唔該 (m4 goi1) when you present your ID card or license. Because 嗱!攞去啦。(naa4 ! lo2 heoi3 laa1.)

literally means "Ok! You can just take it." Most of the time it is the conversation used between close friends or people you have already known before.


唔好講咁多,睇比賽結果就知邊個勁啦。

m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1, tai2 bei2 coi3 git3 gwo2 zau6 zi1 bin1 go3 ging3 laa1.

Stop talking, look at who wins the termite and we'll see who is better.

You are right that 勁(ging6) means "extremely". For example you can describe this potato chip is 勁辣(ging6 laat6) ~ extremely hot and spicy. And as you expect 勁(ging6) and 勁(ging3) have many meanings in different context or intonation.

好勁呀!(hou2 ging6 aa3!) ~amazingly good!

強勁(koeng4 ging6)~strong and powerful! You can use this vocabulary to describe a sport team or opponent.

幹勁 (gon3 ging3)~ enthusiasm, energy


講講下被人打斷。

gong2 gong2 haa5 bei2 jan4 daa2 tyun5.

He was talking and someone interrupted it.

打斷daa2 tyun5~ interrupt

You are right that it means "interrupt" and you can use it in many situations such as working, talking, singing, etc.

打 daa2~hit, strike

斷 tyun5 ~break


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Vincent
Wednesday at 8:05 am
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Is the next to last Dialogue sentence ("naa4 ! lo2 heoi3 laa1.Here you[] are.") limited to the situation where the speaker is giving something to someone to leave and rush off with ('take and go"). In other words, does it mean something like "take this and go!"? So I assume I wouldn't say "lo2 heoi3 laa1 (Here you are)" in other contexts, for instance, when I'm presenting my passport or driver's license to an official, or showing someone a picture I just took with my cellphone while I'm holding onto it?


"Ging3"勁 appears to be translated as "better" In the vocabulary sentence for "stop talking" ("m4 hou2 gong2 gam3 do1, tai2 bei2 coi3 git3 gwo2 zau6 zi1 bin1 go3 ging3 laa1. Stop talking, look at who wins the termite and we'll see who is better.") The on-line dictionary translates "ging6"勁 as "extremely." Is this the only literal translation, or are there other literal translations that are [more] similar to "better" and can you give other examples of how "ging3/ging6" is often used?


In the last Lesson Notes sentence, does "daa2 tyun5" mean interrupt a telephone call ("gong2 gong2 haa5 bei2 jan4 daa2 tyun5.He was talking and someone interrupted it.") or does it also mean "interrupt" in other contexts, for example, when someone is reading or working on something?


Thank you, again!