Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
David: Welcome to CantoneseClass101.com. I’m David.
Gimmy: 大家好, 我係 Gimmy。(daai6 gaa1 hou2, ngo5 hai6 Gimmy.)
David: And we’re here today with Beginner Season 1, Lesson 10.
Gimmy: The Hong Kong Soccer Team.
David: Right. So if you like sports and you’re in Hong Kong, we’re sorry. But we’ve got a dialogue that’s between two sports fans and one of them is going to ask “Have you watched the game?” And we’re going to hear what happens.
Gimmy: Yes.
David: So this is casual Cantonese Hong Kong style, as always.

Lesson conversation

睇咗場波未?(tai2 zo2 coeng4 bo1 mei6?)
睇咗,激死我喇。(tai2 zo2, gik1 sei2 ngo5 laa3.)
點解啫?(dim2 gaai2 zek1?)
又輸波囉!(jau6 syu1 bo1 lo1!)
好正常吖。 (hou2 zing3 soeng4 aa1.)
David: Once again, a bit slower.
睇咗場波未?(tai2 zo2 coeng4 bo1 mei6?)
睇咗,激死我喇。(tai2 zo2, gik1 sei2 ngo5 laa3.)
點解啫?(dim2 gaai2 zek1?)
又輸波囉!(jau6 syu1 bo1 lo1!)
好正常吖。 (hou2 zing3 soeng4 aa1.)
David: And now, with the English translation.
睇咗場波未?(tai2 zo2 coeng4 bo1 mei6?)
Have you watched the match yet?
睇咗,激死我喇。(tai2 zo2, gik1 sei2 ngo5 laa3.)
Yes, I'm very upset.
點解啫?(dim2 gaai2 zek1?)
Why?
又輸波囉!(jau6 syu1 bo1 lo1!)
We lost again!
好正常吖。 (hou2 zing3 soeng4 aa1.)
That's normal.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
David: Which is true. It’s true in most sports actually, not just soccer.
Gimmy: Yeah.
David: Hong Kong is not a place for sports lovers.
Gimmy: I have to admit, yes.
David: So our vocab today, is about winning, it’s about losing, and it’s about how common it is to be losing. Let’s get to it.
VOCAB LIST
Gimmy: 未 (mei6) [natural native speed]
David: Yet.
Gimmy: 未 (mei6) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 未 (mei6) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 激 (gik1) [natural native speed].
David: To be upset.
Gimmy: 激 (gik1) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 激 (gik1) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 又 (jau6) [natural native speed].
David: Again.
Gimmy: 又 (jau6) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 又 (jau6) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 輸 (syu1) [natural native speed]
David: To lose.
Gimmy: 輸 (syu1) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 輸 (syu1) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 贏 (jeng4) [natural native speed]
David: To win.
Gimmy: 贏 (jeng4) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 贏 (jeng4) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 正常 (zing3 soeng4) [natural native speed]
David: Normal.
Gimmy: 正常 (zing3 soeng4) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 正常 (zing3 soeng4) [natural native speed].
Gimmy: 點解 (dim2 gaai2) [natural native speed]
David: Why?
Gimmy: 點解 (dim2 gaai2) [slowly - broken down by syllable]. 點解 (dim2 gaai2) [natural native speed].
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
David: Let’s take a closer look at some of these words and phrases. The first word we want to highlight is the verb “to lose.”
Gimmy: 輸. (syu1.)
David: “To lose.”
Gimmy: 輸.(syu1.)
David: As in the sentence “we lost again.”
Gimmy: 又輸波喇. (jau6 syu1 bo1 laa3.)
David: “We lost again.”
Gimmy: 又輸波. (又輸波.)
David: Right.
Gimmy: David, you know, if you watch Hong Kong soccer, you hear this word a lot.
David: Right. You will hear your colleagues ask each other, “why do we always lose?”
Gimmy: Yes, 點解我哋又輸波. (dim2 gaai2 ngo5 dei6 jau6 syu1 bo1.)
David: Which is “why do we lose again?” What about “why do we always lose?”
Gimmy: 點解我哋成日輸波? (dim2 gaai2 ngo5 dei6 sing4 jat6 syu1 bo1?)
David: “Why do we always lose?”
Gimmy: 點解我哋成日輸? (dim2 gaai2 ngo5 dei6 sing4 jat6 syu1?)
David: And the word that’s the opposite of lose is very rarely mentioned in Hong Kong sport circles, is to win.
Gimmy: 贏 (jeng4)
David: “To win.”
Gimmy: 贏. (jeng4.) I can hardly think of a sport that Hong Kong wins.
David: Right. Certainly not soccer. Racing, people in Hong Kong love racing and there’s always a winner.
Gimmy: All right.
David: So if you go horse-racing, there’s going to be someone in the crowd shouting “I won! I won!”
Gimmy: Yes. That’s a good thing. 我贏咗. (ngo5 jeng4 zo2.)
David: Right. “I won, I won.”
Gimmy: 我贏咗. 我贏咗呀. (ngo5 jeng4 zo2 . ngo5 jeng4 zo2 aa3.)
David: Right. And we’ve got the excited 呀 (aa3) at the end of that, too.
Gimmy: Yes.
David: Right? But most of the time, Hong Kong sporting teams lose and they lose again and again.
Gimmy: So we got the word 又…(jau6...)
David: …which means “again.”
Gimmy: 又. (jau6.)
David: This is an adverb so we’re placing it after the subject in our sentence.
Gimmy: Right.
David: “We lost again.”
Gimmy: 我哋又輸. (ngo5 dei6 jau6 syu1.)
David: They lost again.
Gimmy: 佢哋又輸. (keoi5 dei6 jau6 syu1.)
David: Or maybe if you’re talking about a film, you could say “I watched it again.”
Gimmy: 我又睇過. (ngo5 jau6 tai2 gwo1.)
David: Or going to a restaurant, “I went there again.”
Gimmy: 我又去過. (ngo5 jau6 heoi3 gwo3.)
David: Right. So we hear this is our dialogues again and again.
Gimmy: 又輸波喇. (jau6 syu1 bo1 laa3.)
David: We lost again. The final word we want to highlight is “normal.”
Gimmy: 正常. (zing3 soeng4) The sad thing is we mentioned the team lost…
David: “normal.”
Gimmy: 正常. (zing3 soeng4)
David: Yeah.
Gimmy: …it’s a normal thing.
David: Yes.
Gimmy: 正常. (zing3 soeng4)
David: “It’s really common.”
Gimmy: So if your friend is complaining how the team lost…”
David: Right. You can always console them and tell them….
Gimmy: 輸波好正常啫. (syu1 bo1 hou2 zing3 soeng4 ze1.)
David: “Losing, it’s normal.”
Gimmy: 輸波好正常啫. (syu1 bo1 hou2 zing3 soeng4 ze1.)
David: Right. “Losing is normal.”
Gimmy: Yes.
David: Right. And with that, let’s get to our grammar point.
David: It’s grammar time!

Lesson focus

David: Our focus today is the word for “yet.”
Gimmy: 未. (mei6.)
David: Yet.
Gimmy: 未. (mei6.)
David: So we’re going to learn how to build sentences like the one in our dialogue, “Have you seen the match yet?”
Gimmy: 睇咗場波未? (tai2 zo2 coeng4 bo1 mei6?)
David: “Have you seen the match yet?”
Gimmy: 睇咗場波未? (tai2 zo2 coeng4 bo1 mei6?)
David: So Gimmy, what’s going on?
Gimmy: So we have the word 未 (mei6) at the very end.
David: Right. And we just add this to the end of the sentence.
Gimmy: Right.
David: For instance, the question, “Have you eaten?”
Gimmy: 你食咗飯? (nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6?)
David: “Have you eaten yet?”
Gimmy: 你食咗飯未?(nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6?)
David: For another example, say you’re at the office and a colleague comes by and asked, “Have you finished?”
Gimmy: 你做完?(nei5 zou6 jyun4?)
David: This is different from “Have you finished yet?”
Gimmy: 你做完未?(nei5 zou6 jyun4 mei6?)
David: Let’s hear those again. “Have you finished?”
Gimmy: 你做完?(nei5 zou6 jyun4?)
David: “Have you eaten?”
Gimmy: 你食咗? (nei5 sik6 zo2?)
David: Have you finished yet?
Gimmy: 你做完未?(nei5 zou6 jyun4 mei6?)
David: Have you eaten yet?
Gimmy: 你食咗飯未?(nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6?)
David: For final example, let’s say there’s a film you absolutely love and you’re asking a friend, “Have you seen it?”
Gimmy: 你睇咗?(nei5 tai2 zo2?)
David: Now if you keep asking this, eventually you’re going to want to say “Have you seen it yet?”
Gimmy: 你睇咗未?(nei5 tai2 zo2 mei6?)
David: So this is a really simple grammar structure. We ask our question as usual.
Gimmy: And we put the word 未(mei6) at the very end.
David: Right, just like in English “Have you eaten?” “Have you eaten yet?”
Gimmy: 你食咗?你食咗未? (nei5 sik6 zo2? nei5 sik6 zo2 mei6?) So we’re at the end of the podcast, David.

Outro

David: Thanks a lot for listening and we’ll see you on the site.
Gimmy: 多謝收聽, 下次見. (do1 ze6 sau1 teng1, haa6 ci3 gin3.)

22 Comments

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CantoneseClass101.com
Monday at 6:30 pm
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Are you passionate about soccer?!

cantoneseclass101.com
Saturday at 3:07 pm
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Hello Vincent,


我尋日打麻雀輸咗十幾萬。

ngo5 cam4 jat6 daa2 maa4 zoek2 syu1 zo2 sap6 gei2 maan6。

I lost 100 thousand playing mahjong yesterday.


幾(gei2) means " several" or "a few". 十幾(sap6 gei2) means the number over 10 but not reaching 20.

When you say 十幾萬(sap6 gei2 maan6), it actually means the amount more than 100 thousand dollars but not reaching 200 thousand. For example the teenager is usually around 十幾歲(sap6 gei2 seoi3 ). That means the teenager could be around 13, 14 or 15 but definitely not reaching 20 years old.


激(gik1)~ arouse, stimulate, provoke

嬲 (nau1)~ (verb) get mad, (adj) angry

You can only use the word 激(gik1) when you want to describe making someone get angry.

It is very common to use 激嬲(gik1 nau1) together. It means you make other people get angry. If you only use the word 嬲 (nau1) as a verb, it simply means you are mad or very angry.


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Vincent
Sunday at 8:54 am
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What meaning does "gei2" have between "sap6" and "maan6" in the vocabulary sentence for "to lose" ("ngo5 cam4 jat6 daa2 maa4 zoek2 syu1 zo2 sap6 gei2 maan6. I lost 100 thousand playing mahjong yesterday."), and is it common to have "gei2" so placed between two numbers?


In the vocabulary sentence for "to anger" ("yu4 gwo2 nei5 ngaak1 ngo5, nei5 wui5 gik1 nau1 ngo5. If you cheat me, you'll anger me."), do "gik1" and "nau1" have essentially the same meaning (to anger, and be angry) and, if so, is that being overly repetitious, or is there a different (possibly emphatic) meaning to combining "gik1" with "nau1" like this? Is it wrong to simply say "gik1" without "nau1" and how common are they said together? Thank you, again!

Cantoneseclass101.comVerified
Monday at 6:59 am
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Hello Steven,


No 不是的 in Cantonese is 唔係(m4 hai6)


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Cantoneseclass101.comVerified
Saturday at 2:19 am
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Hello Alex,


Thank you for your question.


佢成日鐘意贏。(keoi5 seng4 jat6 zung1 ji3 jeng4) sounds more natural than 佢鐘意成日贏(keoi5 zung1 ji3 seng4 jat6 jeng4). 成日(seng4 jat6) means "all the time". To be more specific, you can use 經常(ging1 soeng4) for the meaning of "always" to describe something done ritually. Both of them usually are used in front of the verb.

For example, 佢成日出街食飯(keoi5 seng4 jat6 ceot1 gaai1 sik6 faan6). He is eating out all the time. OR

佢經常出街食飯(keoi5 ging1 soeng4 ceot1 gaai1 sik6 faan6). He is always eating out.


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Alex
Friday at 10:53 am
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Hello,


If I want to say, "he likes to win all the time", would I say, "keoi5 zung1 ji3 sing4 jat6 jeng4"?


Or if I say, "he always likes winning", would I say "keoi5 sing4 jat6 zung1 ji3 jeng4"?


These two sentences are very close in meaning, but in English, they have a different meaning.


Is this the same in Cantonese?


Thank you,

Alex

Cantoneseclass101.comVerified
Monday at 2:27 am
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Hi Maggie,


李麗珊贏咗。。。:smile:


Great example! :thumbsup:


Siuling

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Maggie
Wednesday at 12:16 pm
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李麗珊贏咗。。。:smile:

CantoneseClass101
Monday at 3:49 pm
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Hi Kevin,


Good question!

gwo3 (過) is like the present perfect [has/have + past participle]. It can be used in questions and statements.

Eg. sik6 gwo3 "have eaten"

heoi3 gwo3 "have been"

nei5 jau5 mou5 heoi3 gwo3...? "have you been to...?"


On the other hand, zo2 mei6 (咗未) is only used in questions, asking if an action has been completed.

sik6 zo2 mei6? "did (you) eat?"

heoi3 zo2 mei6? "did (you) go?"


Feel free to ask if you have further questions, we're here to help :smile:


Olivia

Team CantoneseClass101.com

Kevin
Monday at 3:40 am
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Hi,

I'm confused about the difference (if there is any) between sentences with gwo3 (過) and zo2 mei6 (咗未).

With the examples, we used ngo5 jau6 tai2 gwo3, but could it also be ngo5 jau6 tai2 zo2 mei6? Thank you! :innocent:

CantoneseClass101
Tuesday at 11:54 am
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Hello Danilo Buendia,


Thank you for your comments!


To ask the question "could you say..." in Cantonese, it's 可唔可以講... (ho2 m4 ho2 ji3 gong2...)


waa! dim2 gaai2 gam3 gik1 hei3? m4 sai2 gik1 hei3!

“Whoa, why are you so angry? No need to be angry”

嘩!點解咁激氣?唔使激氣!

The adjective "being angry/irritated/pissed off" is 激氣 (gik1 hei3)

While in the lesson dialog 激 (gik1) is the verb of "pissing off someone" :wink:


Q: Or is m4 sai2 strictly used in a “you’re welcome” purpose?

A: m4 sai2 is loosely translated as "no need", and not strictly used in "you're welcome" only, so you can use it like the above example. :thumbsup:

Another example, something you might hear at the supermarket: 使唔使膠袋? (sai2 m4 sai2 gaau1 doi2?) "Do you need a plastic bag?" And the reply can be 唔使 (m4 sai2).


Olivia

Team CantoneseClass101.com